Both ATP and NADPH are used in the ..
oxygen has and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
the Light Reactions of photosynthesis (ATP and NADPH), ..
If the light intensity is not a limiting factor, there will usually be a shortage of NADP+ as NADPH accumulates within the stroma (see light independent reaction). NADP+ is needed for the normal flow of electrons in the thylakoid membranes as it is the final electron acceptor. If NADP+ is not available then the normal flow of electrons is inhibited. However, there is an alternative pathway for ATP production in this case and it is called cyclic photophosphorylation. It begins with Photosystem I absorbing light and becoming photoactivated. The excited electrons from Photosystem I are then passed on to a chain of electron carriers between Photosystem I and II. These electrons travel along the chain of carriers back to Photosystem I and as they do so they cause the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membrane and therefore create a proton gradient. As explained previously, the protons move back across the thylakoid membrane through ATP synthase and as they do so, ATP is produced. Therefore, ATP can be produced even when there is a shortage of NADP+.
Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, ..
Glycerate 3-phosphate is reduced during the reduction reactions to a three-carbon sugar called triose phosphate. Energy and hydrogen is needed for the reduction and these are supplied by ATP and NADPH + H+ (both produced during light-dependent reactions) respectively. Two triose phosphate molecules can then react together to form glucose phosphate. The condensation of many molecules of glucose phosphate forms starch which is the form of carbohydrate stored in plants. However, out of six triose phosphates produced during the reduction reactions, only one will be used to synthesise glucose phosphate. The five remaining triose phosphates will be used to regenerate RuBP.
The light reactions are a series of reactions that require light and result in the formation of energy molecules of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
and the energy from ATP and NADPH are used ..
So how can these factors have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis? Lets start off with the light intensity. When the light intensity is poor, there is a shortage of ATP and NADPH, as these are products from the light dependent reactions. Without these products the light independent reactions can't occur as glycerate 3-phosphate cannot be reduced. Therefore a shortage of these products will limit the rate of photosynthesis. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low, the amount of glycerate 3-phosphate produced is limited as carbon dioxide is needed for its production and therefore the rate of photosynthesis is affected. Finally, many enzymes are involved during the process of photosynthesis. At low temperatures these enzymes work slower. At high temperatures the enzymes no longer work effectively. This affects the rate of the reactions in the Calvin cycle and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.
Photosynthetic electron transport establishes a transmembrane gradient of proton concentration, a proton motive force, that serves to drive the ATPase reaction in the direction of ATP synthesis.
ATP and NADPH are energy intermediates that provide the needed ..
They do this by producing ATP and NADPH, ..
The energy from ATP and NADPH energy carriers generated by the photosystems is used to phosphorylate the PGA
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate - …
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis use the ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to ..
This tutorial introduces mitochondria
Pearson - The Biology Place
Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8 - YouTube
TDP is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including transketolase, Î±-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and branched chain Î±-keto acid dehydrogenase. These enzymes are involved in the link between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle; the citric acid cycle itself; the pentose-phosphate pathway; that allow for the production of ATP, NADPH, and ribose-5-phosphate which are critical for generating cellular energy and downstream production of amino acids, nucleic acids, and fatty acids ().
Light-dependent reactions - Wikipedia
In addition to producing NADPH, the light dependent reactions also produce oxygen as a waste product. When the special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre passes on the electrons to the chain of electron carriers, it becomes positively charged. With the aid of an enzyme at the reaction centre, water molecules within the thylakoid space are split. Oxygen and H+ ions are formed as a result and the electrons from the splitting of these water molecules are given to chlorophyll. The oxygen is then excreted as a waste product. This splitting of water molecules is called photolysis as it only occurs in the presence of light.
chloroplast | Function, Location, & Diagram | …
'Linear electron transport' involves electrons (e-) being derived from the splitting of water, by PSII, and sequentially passed along the photosynthetic e- transport chain by plastoquinone (PQ), cytochrome bf (Cytbf), plastocyanin (PC), Photosystem I (PSI) and PSI-bound ferredoxin (Fd), before being used for producting NADPH by ferredoxin–NADP+ oxido-reductase (not shown) in the Stromal matrix (Stroma).
IB Biology Notes - 8.2 Photosynthesis
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential to the health of . In its diphosphate form (also known as TDP, thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP, or cocarboxylase), it serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including transketolase, Î±-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and branched chain Î±-keto acid dehydrogenase. These enzymes are involved in pathways that allow for the production of ATP, NADPH, and ribose-5-phosphate which are critical for generating cellular energy and downstream production of amino acids, nucleic acids, and fatty acids ().
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."