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DNA and RNA are involved in the synthesis of proteins.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a carrier molecule for amino acids, delivering them to the site of protein synthesis.

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Energy Cost for Protein Synthesis

For example, the 16S nucleotides 885-890 and 910912 can base pair in two different conformations (Fig. 12). The 910-912 CUC can form canonical Watson-Crick base pairs with the GAG of 888-890 or can pair with the GGG of 885-887 to give a central G-U wobble pair. Substitutions demonstrated that both pairings are essential for biological activity, suggesting that 16S rRNA switches between two conformations at different steps in protein synthesis. Furthermore, mutations that favored the "888 conformation" led to restrictive (hyper-accurate) riboso-mal phenotypes, while those that stabilized the "885 pairing" produced error-prone phenotypes. Structurally, this triplet-switch-sequence has been located in the 70S crystal structure near the long 16S helix that is part of the decoding region of the small subunit. The switch helix is certainly involved in tRNA selection, and may also play a role in translocation, as suggested by the observation that mutations that favored the 888 conformation were hypersensitive to spectinomycin, an antibiotic known to inhibit EF-G-dependent translocation.

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.

Proteins that require special conditions or are destined to become part of the cell membrane are processed in the ER and then handed off to another organelle called the Golgi apparatus.

09/07/2016 · What are the functions of rRNA, tRNA ..

The nucleolus and ribosomes form part of the proteinsynthesizing machinery of the cell

1. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein.
2. Bacterial ribosomes are composed of two subunits with densities of 50S and 30S, as opposed to 60S and 40S in eukaryotic cells.
3. Ribosomes function as a workbench for protein synthesis whereby they receive and translate genetic instructions for the formation of specific proteins.
4. During translation, specific tRNA molecules pick up specific amino acids, transfer those amino acids to the ribosomes, and insert them in their proper place according to the mRNA "message."
5. Many antibiotics bind to either the 30S or the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, interfering with translation and thereby causing faulty protein synthesis.

The two subunits combine during protein synthesis to form a complete 70S ribosome about 25nm in diameter. A typical bacterium may have as many as 15,000 ribosomes.

Biology 12 DNA and Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Pederson T and Tsai RYL (2009) In search of nonribosomal nucleolar protein function and regulation. Journal of Cell Science 184: 771–776.

All tRNA's are similar in structure. The TC arm participates in binding of the charged tRNA to a site on the ribosome where protein synthesis occurs. The DHU (or D) arm is necessary for recognition by the proper aminoacyl tRNA synthase (the enzyme). The acceptor end is at the 3' terminus and ends in the sequence CCA. The anticodon arm consists of seven nucleotides, the sequence of which is read 3' to 5' (opposite convention to the usual 5' to 3').

Neither electron microscopy nor X-ray crystallography seemed suited to provide a high-resolution structure of the ribosome, which was thought to be too small for the first and too large for the second method. Yet both have been pushed to the limit to provide significant new structures that are already explaining mechanistic features of protein synthesis.

The remaining sequence of genetic information, the exons, are retained in the  for protein synthesis.
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  • What Is the Function of Protein Synthesis

    Protein Synthesis

  • This lesson discusses the function of protein synthesis

    a ribozyme and catalyzes the formation of new peptide bonds during protein synthesis.

  • what is the role of rRna in protein synthesis? | Yahoo …

    Function of rRNA?

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pair with the pre-rRNA to function in ribosome synthesis.

AB - Using a specialized ribosome system, previous studies have identified G791 in Escherichia coli 16S rRNA as an invariant and essential residue for ribosome function. To investigate the functional role of G791, we searched for multicopy suppressors that partially restored the protein synthesis ability of mutant ribosomes bearing a G to U substitution at position 791 (U791 ribosomes). Analyses of isolated multicopy suppressors showed that overexpression of initiation factor 1 (IF1) enhanced the protein synthesis ability of U791 ribosomes. In contrast, overexpression of initiation factor 2 (IF2) or IF3 did not enhance the protein synthesis ability of wild-type or U791 ribosomes, and overexpression of IF1 did not affect the function of wild-type or mutant ribosomes bearing nucleotide substitutions in other regions of 16S rRNA. Analyses of sucrose gradient profiles of ribosomes showed that overexpression of IF1 marginally enhanced the subunit association of U791 ribosomes and indicated lower binding affinity of U791 ribosomes to IF1. Our findings suggest the involvement of IF1 in the restoration of the P-site function that was impaired by a nucleotide substitution at residue G791.

This lesson discusses the vital role mRNA plays in protein synthesis

In order to synthesize a protein, the genetic information in the DNA must be converted to an amino acid sequence. Its similar to the way that someone needs to read a recipe and mix the correct ingredients together.

which contain rRNA, are organelles where protein production ..

Grob A, Colleran C and McStay B (2014) Construction of synthetic nucleoli in human cells reveals how a major functional nuclear domain is formed and propagated through cell division. Genes and Development 22: 220–230.

Describe the Relative Roles of Dna and Rna in Protein Synthesis;

N2 - Using a specialized ribosome system, previous studies have identified G791 in Escherichia coli 16S rRNA as an invariant and essential residue for ribosome function. To investigate the functional role of G791, we searched for multicopy suppressors that partially restored the protein synthesis ability of mutant ribosomes bearing a G to U substitution at position 791 (U791 ribosomes). Analyses of isolated multicopy suppressors showed that overexpression of initiation factor 1 (IF1) enhanced the protein synthesis ability of U791 ribosomes. In contrast, overexpression of initiation factor 2 (IF2) or IF3 did not enhance the protein synthesis ability of wild-type or U791 ribosomes, and overexpression of IF1 did not affect the function of wild-type or mutant ribosomes bearing nucleotide substitutions in other regions of 16S rRNA. Analyses of sucrose gradient profiles of ribosomes showed that overexpression of IF1 marginally enhanced the subunit association of U791 ribosomes and indicated lower binding affinity of U791 ribosomes to IF1. Our findings suggest the involvement of IF1 in the restoration of the P-site function that was impaired by a nucleotide substitution at residue G791.

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