Dr James Lovelock - Formulation of the Gaia Hypothesis ...

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Dr Lynn Margulis - Microbiological Collaboration of Gaia ...

The Gaia Hypothesis, NewAge Movements & Ancient RevivalsChapter 7 ...

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Further and Future Evolution of the Gaia Hypothesis

The Gaia Hypothesis is the theory that living organisms and inorganic material are part of a dynamic system that shape Earth's biosphere, in Lynn Margulis's words, a "super organismic system".

Biblographical References relating to the Gaia HypothesisChapter 9 ...

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James Lovelock (Gaia theory)
Discovered that Earth's biosphere is analogous to a living organism with homeostasis: multiple feedback paths maintaining the average temperature and gas mixture of Earth's atmosphere.

What is the hypothesis of Gaia ?

This theory is the one that gave her the credibility to advance the Gaia Hypothesis....


The Gaia hypothesis sees life regulating the surface temperatureof Earth. The average surface temperature of Earth has remained withina narrow range - between 10 and 20 C - for over three billion years. During that time the sun's output has increased by thirty or forty percent. Even ignoring the long-term trend of the sun, the temperature would varyfar more, as it does for example every day on the surface of Mars

Specifically, the Gaia hypothesis says that the temperature,oxidation,state, acidity, and certain aspects of the rocks and waters are kept constant,and that this homeostasis is maintained by active feedback processes operatedautomatically and unconsciously by the biota."Even the shifting of the tectonic plates, resulting in the changing shapes of thecontinents, may result from the massive limestone deposits left in the earth bybioforms eons ago."You may find it hard to swallow the notion that anything as large and apparentlyinanimate as the Earth is alive.

The GAIA theory: from Lovelock to Margulis ..

- very good review of the Gaia hypothesis from the holistic perspective

In that same year, Lovelock began to think that such an unlikely combination of gases such as the Earth had, indicated a homeostatic of the Earth biosphere to maintain environmental conditions conducive forlife, in a sort of cybernetic feedback loop, an active (but non-) control system. By the end of the 1960's, Lovelock had definitively organized his theory. The novelist William Golding, Lovelock's neighbor,suggested he call the control system , after the ancient Greek Earth Goddess. First on his own in 1972, and then later in 1973 with American microbiologist Lynn Margulis, Lovelockformally proposed the idea of Gaia as a control system. The name for the complex system of climate control has remained "Gaia" since then, and in 1979 his book, first presented the Gaia hypothesis to the wider public. Gaia has has become a very potent in the human

Biologist, Earth science, Eukaryote, Organelle, Endosymbiotic theory, Gaia hypothesis

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