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Korean War: General Matthew Ridgway - …

Brigadier General Walter Larew pins Second Lieutenant rank onto his son Karl’s uniform during Military Day ceremonies, 1959.

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During the Korean War the terrible loss of life ..

Sample essay on Korean war. The thesis statement is the next: the Korean War occupies its significant place between the World War II and the Vietnam War,

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STRICT CENSORSHIP

- It was reported
late today that large Communist concentrations are being bui It up
north of Yanggu in an apparent attempt to stabilize a new defence line
ad of Hwachon reservoir.
Strict censorship which has been cloaking the operations, particular-
in the area of the Hwachon reservoir, was extended to-day to
~ the deletion of references to the nationality of the allied troops
in action. It is understood that this will be the policy to be followed
the new commander of the United States Eighth Army,
Lieutenant-General Van Fleet.



NAVAL CASUALTY IN KOREA

The Admiralty announces that Lieutenant G.H. Cooles, Royal
Navy, pilot of a naval aircraft from H. MS. Theseus has been reported
missing, presumed killed, after a dive-bombing attack on a bridge in
Korea.




GALLANTRY IN KOREA

A number of awards for gallant and distinguished services in Korea
wm published in last night's London Gazette. They include two
aw" of the Distinguished Service Order, four of the Military Cross,
Aye of the Military Medal, and one of the bar to the Distinguished
Flying Cross.
The awards include:

D.S.O. - Major Reginald Michael Pratt, The Royal Northumberland
Fusiliers; Major John Kirkpatrick Hay Shaw, the Royal Ulster Rifles.

M.C.. - Captain Cecil William Bowen, Royal Army Medical Corps;
Second Lieutenant Houston Mark Shaw-Stewart, The Royal Ulster
Rifles; Lieutenant David John Manner, Australian Military Forces;
Captain Archer Paterson Denness, Australian Military Forces.

Bar to the D.F.C. - Squadron Leader John Ernest Proctor, General
Duties Branch, Royal Air Force.

M3L - Fusilier James Baden Barker, The Royal Northumberland
Fusilier; Sergeant (acting) Henry Adams Campbell, The Royal Ulster
Rifles; Sergeant (acting) John Pilcher, The Royal Northumberland
@Fusiliers; Gunner Herbert James Spraggs, Royal Regiment of
Artillery; Private Charlie Francis McMurray, Australian Military



CASUALTIES IN KOREA

Thie following casualties incurred in action in Korea have been
notified to the War Office:

ROYAL ENGINEERS - Other Ranks - WOUNDED -
Sapper P.W. Arnold, Sapper W. Pashley.

THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT - Officer - WOUNDED
-Lieutenant A.R. Norrish.

THE MIDDLESEX REGIMENT - Other Rank - WOUNDED -
Private D. Allchin.

THE ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS - Officers
- KI LLED - 2nd Lieutenant M.J.D. Cawthorn, Lieutenant J.A.C.
Milner (Dorsets, art A. and S.H.).

Other Ranks - WOUNDED - Private D. Gilks (R. Leic. art A. and
S.H.), Private D.M. Livie, Private M.P. Lee, Private L. Young
(K.S.L.I. art A. and S.H.).



AWARDS FOR GALLANTRY IN KOREA

The London Gazette announced last night that the King had
approved the following awards for gallant and distinguished services
in Korea:

MILITARY CROSS - Captain Arthur Roxburghe, Royal New
Zealand Artillery.

MILITARY MEDAL - Private Leslie Raymond Cobby, The
Middlesex Regiment.




QUICK CHINESE WITHDRAWAL

TACTICAL AIMS IN KOREA

From Our Military Correspondent - Though the Chinese have
been yielding ground in Korea for some time, the process has lately
quickened. On Wednesday Eighth Army patrols and small columns
with armour met no rearguards as during the previous four days.
General Ridgway's communiqué stated that resistance was
"negligible," and the only sign of a stand was at the Hwachon
reservoir. Then, on Thursday, troops of the Eighth Army entered
Hwachon and the enemy gave up his defence of the reservoir.
A strong force - as distinct from a patrol the previous day
advanced to within three miles of Chorwon, which has for long been
described as a focus of resistance. One little engagement north of
Inje, half-way between Hwachon and the sea, ended with retreat of
a hostile battalion in face of an attack by South Korean troops.
It is now suggested by officers in Tokyo that the Chinese will stand
on the line Chorwon-Kumwha, earlier described as a main line of
resistance, but perhaps only for a delaying action. If this proved true it
would represent a marked revision of the enemy's plans, at all events
as formerly interpreted.

THREE POSSIBILITIES
In groping for the significance of the Chinese policy, at least three
possibilities appear. First, they may be attempting enticement with a
view to dealing a heavier blow by means of a preliminary shortening
of their own communications, and perhaps hoping that the United
Nations forces will becomes less well balanced and more vulnerable
as the peninsula widens.
Secondly, they may have suffered such damage that they have no
choice but to make these withdrawals. If so, this must be largely due
to attacks from the air and, in lesser degree, artillery action, for the
good reason that the infantry of the Eighth Army has not lately been
in touch with more than rearguards, small at that, so could in no way
be responsible for the infliction of heavy damage.
Thirdly, the expected spring offensive may be a myth. This,
however, would mean that there had been not only a complete
misapprehension by the United Nations and Eighth Army commands
but also a complete change of attitude on the part of the enemy.
Hitherto he has attacked when he could.
Thus, although few remarkable events have been finding a place in
the Korean war news, the situation is interesting. In the region of

- 51 -

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forces yesterday beat back four night attacks, and in thecentral area
they held firm against lighter attacks.

NO PERMANENT LINE
Lieutenant-General Van fleet made an unannounced visit to the front
yesterday. He was asked whether he believed that the Eighth Army
could hold the enemy north of the Han river, which runs along the
southern side of Seoul. He replied emphatically: "I do." He said that
the allies had not established a permanent line of defence, and their
withdrawal was continuing. He was keeping on with the war of
manoeuvre planned by Lieutenant-General Ridgway. "We are keeping
units intact. We are taking a tremendous toll of the enemy, while
enduring only minimum losses ourselves."
The allied troops, withdrawing in heavy rain, broke contact with the
enemy over most sectors of the front to-day, while thousands of fresh
Chinese troops moved into the battle area to replace their hard-hit and
exhausted frontline forces.
At Eighth Army headquarters to-night it was stated that an important
highway running north-east out of Seoul to Chunchon, on the central
front, was still in allied hands. Two probing attacks were repulsed
west of Kapyong, on that road, which the allies are defending from
new positions. South of the Hwachon reservoir allied elements with-
drew seven miles to avoid flanking attacks after their abandonment of
Yanggu, at the east end of the reservoir. Only on the east coast are
there any United Nations troops still north of the parallel. There,
South Koreans were reported to-day to be in contact with about 600
of the enemy.
Bad weather reduced air operations, but fighters and light bombers
made 363 sorties.

(Q The Times, 28th April 1951


THE CRITICAL STAGE APPROACHING

From Our Own Correspondent, New York, April 27 - The Chinese
are still thrusting towards Seoul, in the main by the Uijongbu and
Munsan roads, down which they moved when they previously
captured the city. It would seem, however, that the Eighth Army's
withdrawal has now become more deliberate and under control.
The offensive is now reaching its critical stage. Up to the present
the immense energy and dash which the Chinese put into their
attacks have on each occasion begun to evaporate within a week of
the first onset. This offensive began on Sunday night.
The fresh troops of the Chinese Third Field Army may be more
pertinacious than their predecessors - a British soldier who went
through the winter fighting is quoted as saying that the attacks were
even more determined and ferocious this time. Yet it has in all
likelihood been not lack of pertinacity, but lack of organization, in
practice lack of food and ammunition, which has previously braked
the Chinese oftensives so sharply. It is probable that on this occasion,
where their advance has been deep, they have far outrun their
artillery.

(0 The Times, 28th April 1951


CASUALTIES IN KOREA

The following casualties incurred in action in Korea have been
notified to the War Office:

8th HUSSARS - KILLED - Other Ranks - Trooper P.F. Rowley
(previously reported 'missing in action').

ROYAL NORTHUMBERLAND FUSILIERS - KILLED -
Other Ranks - Fusilier S. Ludlow.

THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT - WOUNDED - Officers
- 2nd Lieutenant J.A. Haggerty.

Other Ranks - WOUNDED - Lance Corporal J. MeArdle, Lance
Corporal W.J. Russell, Private G.A. Chamberlain, Private C.D.
Francis, Private B. Hopkins, Private F.D. Hewitt, Private D.C.
Hockley, Private R.F. Marsh, Private J.E. Mortimer (Dorsets art
Glosters), Private J.R. Tickner.

THE MIDDLESEX REGIMENT - Other Ranks - WOUNDED -
Private T.J. Freeman.

THE ROYAL ULSTER RIFLES - Other Ranks - WOUNDED -
Rifleman A. Green, Lance Corporal P. Alberts, (Wilts art R.U.R.).

THE ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS - Other
Ranks - WOUNDED - Corporal H. Saunders, Private R. McNae,
Private A. Watson, Private K. Morgan (K.O.S.B. art A. and S.H.),
Private J. Mulligan (Gordons art A. and S.H.).

ROYAL ARMY SERVICE CORPS - Other Ranks - WOUNDED -
Driver P.J. Molloy, Driver D.S. Nicholls.

C The Times, 28th April 1951


BRITISH BRIGADES'GALLANTRY

AN AMERICAN TRIBUTE

The Korean Front, April 29, - Fuller reports have become availab'@e
of the gallant actions fought by two British brigades in face of masse
Communist attacks last week.
Major-General Hoge, commander of IX Corps, to-day described as
superb the 27th Brigade's action in covering a 10-mile-wide gap in
the United Nations line north of Kapyong. The brigade was sent into
action after a South Korean division collapsed. It fought "Against
tremendous odds and did not budge an inch." Australian and Canadi
troops, who bore the brunt of the Chinese onslaught in that sector,
had, in his opinion, killed as many Chinese "as the combined strength
of two Commonwealth battalions."
New Zealand artillery was in support and took heavy toll of the
enemy. The Chinese gathered new forces for an even heavier assault
the next day, but were fought with machine-gun, rifle, grenade, and
then the bayonet. Once more they broke off the action. After covering
the withdrawal of the artillery, with all their weapons and transport,
the Australians fell back to a new line in good order.
The 29th Brigade met the full weight of the attack down the main
corridor towards Seoul, and fought the Communists to a standstill
before withdrawing in conformity with the United Nations
Commander's tactical plan. Turks and Belgians joined in actions
which it is said will make regimental history. The brigade's heaviest
losses were suffered by the Gloucestershire Regiment. - (0 Reuters

The Times, 30th April 1951


CHINESE MASS 300,000
TO ATTACK SEOUL

U.N. PULL BACK TO NEW LINE

From Denis Warner Daily Telegraph Special Correspondent, United
Nations Command H. Q., Tokyo, Sunday - Dug in behind barbed wire
entanglements on the northern approaches to Seoul, United Nations
troops to-night awaited a major Communist attack against the South
Korean capital. Light contact only was made with Chinese forces'in
the area during the day.
Intelligence reports continue to tell, however, of an enemy build-up
south of Munsan and Uijongbu and north-cast alone theseoul-
Chunchon lateral highway. The two towns and the road passed into
Communist hands over the week-end.

- 56 -

HEAVY BRITISH LOSSES IN KOREA

GLOUCESTERS HARD HIT IN 4-DAY BATTLE

From Denis Warner Daily Telegraph special Correspondent, U.N.
Command H. Q., Tokyo, Saturday morning - Detailed accounts are
now available of the four-day stand on the lmjin River front in West
Korea by troops of the British 29th Brigade. They were given by
survivors of the Gloucester battalion who have been trickling back
to the United Nations line.
The Gloucesters' losses in the engagement, the most desperate
fought by British troops in Korea, are officially described as very
heavy. Less than a company have so far returned, but hope is still
held for a good many of the remainder.
The British stand upset the Chinese timetable, but last night the
Communists were reported about 10 miles from Seoul. One enemy
column was fighting round Uijongbu, and the second south of Munsan
- both on direct roads to the capital.
Captain M.G. Harvey, of Portsmouth, led the first detachment of 50
of the Gloucesters to safety late on Thursday. With ammunition spent
and equipment discarded, his dust-stained group of men brought only
their rifles, which they had refused to throw away.
The Gloucesters' ordeal began on Sunday night, when Communist
bugle-calls on the west bank of the lmjin River announced the
beginning of the spring offensive. Forward patrols on the cast bank
watched the Chinese form up.
Artillery temporarily broke the Communist formations. Survivors
said it was moonlight and they could watch the shells falling, but the
Communists reformed and began to wade the river in hundreds.
Many died in the river from the small-arms fire of the forward
patrols, who withdrew only when their ammunition was spent. On the
high ground overlooking the river the battalion awaited the attack.

BRITISH HOLD FIRE
Chinese Withdraw - The men held their fire until the Communists
were moving up slopes, then let go with mortars, heavy and light
machine-guns, rifles, sub-machine-guns and grenades. In face of this
concentrated and sustained fire the enemy swung to the flanks.
In the darkness before dawn the Chinese consolidated in preparation
for a daylight attack. It came at dawn, but the Gloucesters, as they
were to do many times in the succeeding days, held their ground.
By nine o'clock it was almost victory. The Chinese withdrew,
leaving hundreds of dead behind. During the afternoon, however,
infiltrators moved deep into 29th Brigade territory and cut the
Gloucesters' lines of communications. Machine-gun posts, reinforced
by platoons of infantry stopped all movement along the road to the
rear.
At night came the second major attack. It came from both left and
right flanks and the Gloucesters moved to a hill where they formed a
tight all-round perimeter which was now attacked from all sides.

SUPPLIES LOW
Planes Drop Ammunition - Daylight enemy attacks continued
all Tuesday, but supplies had become low. That night low-flying
American planes parachuted to the heroic battalion desperately
needed small-arms ammunition, but only enough food for one can
of rations to each man.
On Wednesday the troops heard a tank relief column on its way and
the Chinese began to show understandable reluctance to come to close
quarters. But late that day the commander, Lieutenant-Colonel J.P.
Came, told his company commanders that the situation was desperate
and companies were ordered to fight their way out.
The battalion bugler sounded Reveille and, said Captain Harvey, it
had a wonderful effect upon morale. The Gloucesters started cheering.
Colonel Came, his chaplain and doctor stayed with battalion H.Q.
They planned to be the last to leave the hill and thus give the compa-
nies the best chance to begin withdrawal.

TANKS OPEN FIRE
Plane Corrects Error - Captain Harvey and his men went north for
a mile before turning west and then south. When they were still a mile

from United Nations lines they ran into a heavy Communist ambush,
The troops scattered into ditches and paddy-fields and wormed their
way on their stomachs before the Communists supplemented their
machine-guns with mortars. Even this was not the end of their mis-
fortunes. American tank crews sent to the rescue thought the ragged
soldiers coming along the hills were Chinese and opened fire.
A low-flying spotter plane saved this situation. Troops stood up and
waved to the pilot when he flew over them and the plane in turn
dropped a message to the tanks to hold fire. When the tank turned
their guns on the Communists the Gloucesters got to their feet and
ran, waving and shouting, across the paddy-fields to their rescuers.
To-day they are now safely behind the lines, watching and waiting
for their friends to arrive. In ones, twos, and small groups they are
beginning to come back.
One small group of the Gloucesters, led by 2nd Lieutenant David
Holdsworth, of Lych Gate, Wirral, Cheshire, walked back to the
Allied lines with South Korean soldiers.
Along the whole front yesterday there was little indication that the
tremendous casualties inflicted by the United Nations air and ground
forces had yet begun seriously to affect the Communist offensive.
The advance south is no lightning thrust but it is making steady
progress.
The South Korean Government ordered the evacuation of Seoul for
the third time as the noise of guns from the battle raging around
Uijongbu, only 1 1 miles north, could clearly be heard in the city.
Reports from Seoul said that 400,000 civilians had begun the
desperate trek south across the Han River.
Ground haze restricted United Nations air support during the day.
Heavy fighting was reported south of Munsan, where the second
finger of the Communist drive to Seoul also made some progress.
On the eastern front the allies abandoned Yanggu, the last important
centre they held in North Korea.
Lieutenant-General Van Fleet, Eighth Army commander, visiting the
front yesterday, predicted that his forces would hold the Communists
North of the Han River.

(0 The Daily Telegraph, 26th April 1951


CHINESE WITHIN 18 MILES OF SEOUL

EMPIRE TROOPS FILLED GAP IN
ANZAC DAY BATTLE

From Denis Warner Daily Telegraph Special Correspondent, U.X
Command, H. Q., Tokyo, Friday Chinese Communists advanced to
within 18 miles of Seoul yesterday. United Nations forces continued
their generally orderly withdrawal along the entire Korean front.
Two Communist drives along the Munsan and Uijongbu highways
directly threaten the shattered remains of Seoul. A third force
estimated at 100,000, yesterday attacked Chunchon, possibly with
the intention of driving along the lateral road to the capital.
Delayed reports to-night told of the splendid part played on
Wednesday and yesterday by the Commonwealth 27th and 29th
Brigades. In the central sector the 27th Brigade staved off disaster
when a South Korean division broke before Chinese infantry and
cavalry.
Australians and New Zealanders fighting together as one unit -and
on Anzac Day - combined in what the Americans described as one
of the most gallant actions of the campaign, the brigade filled a 10-
mile gap. New Zealand artillery firing from close range killed
hundreds of Communists and then Australian infantry went in with
bayonets.
[The 27thBrigade at this time was made up of Ist Battalion The
Middlesex Regiment, 2nd Battalion Princess Patricia @ Canadian
Light Infantry, 3rd Battalion Royal Australian Regiment, ]6th New
Zealand Field Regiment, - and supporting arms. The Australians and
Canadians played a decisive role in the battle. Both battalions were to
receive the United States Presidential Unit Citation for this action.
The Brigade @ fourth battalion, Ist Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland

- 54 -

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