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Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression

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Presentation Summary : Chapter 15: Regulation of Gene Expression. Anablepanablepwith its “4 eyes”. ... provide initial control of gene expression . by .

 Copyright ? 2006-2013 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All rights reserved.

The polypeptide chain that is made also has directionality; one end has a free amino group and the other end of the chain has a free carboxyl group. These are called the N-terminus and the C-terminus, respectively. New amino acids are added only to a free carboxyl end, so polypeptide chains grow from the N-terminus to the C-terminus.

Secondary structure of phenylalanyl-tRNA from yeast, from Wikipedia

This video gives a highly simplified overview of the central dogma of molecular biology:

Insertions or deletions (“indels”) of single nucleotides cause a change in the reading of all downstream codons; they are shifted by one base. Such “frameshift” mutations will alter most or all amino acids downstream (towards the 3′ end of the mRNA, towards the C-terminus of the protein) of the mutation.

Some mutations create a new stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA). These are called “nonsense” mutations and cause truncated polypeptides to be made.

Tertiary structure of tRNA, from Wikipedia

And this video provides an animated overview of gene expression in a eukaryotic cell:

Presentation Summary : The control of gene expression allows cells to produce specific kinds of proteins when and where they are needed. Our earlier understanding of gene control came from ...

Presentation Summary : Title: Genetic Transcription & Translation Lecture PowerPoint Author: Tami Port Keywords: genetic transcription powerpoint, genetic translation ppt, transcription ...

Transcription is the process of using DNA as a template to make an RNA molecule:
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  • Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    ESR1 Gene - GeneCards | ESR1 Protein | ESR1 Antibody

  • Prokaryotes: transcription and translation are coupled

    ESR2 Gene - GeneCards | ESR2 Protein | ESR2 Antibody

  • Dr. Choi’s video lecture on this topic, in one 32-min chunk:

    Enhanced Protein Translation Underlies ..

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Test your knowledge with these questions & problems:

Teng T, Mercer CA, Hexley P, Thomas G andFumagalli S: Loss of tumor suppressor RPL5/RPL11 does not inducecell cycle arrest but impedes proliferation due to reduced ribosomecontent and translation capacity. Mol Cell Biol. 33:4660–4671.2013. : :

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Fumagalli S, Ivanenkov VV, Teng T andThomas G: Supra-induction of p53 by disruption of 40S and 60Sribosome biogenesis leads to the activation of a novel G2/Mcheckpoint. Genes Dev. 26:1028–1040. 2012. : :

There are also transcription termination signals in the DNA.

Sloan KE, Bohnsack MT and Watkins NJ: The5S RNP couples p53 homeostasis to ribosome biogenesis and nucleolarstress. Cell Rep. 5:237–247. 2013. : :

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Volarevic S, Stewart MJ, Ledermann B,Zilberman F, Terracciano L, Montini E, Grompe M, Kozma SC andThomas G: Proliferation, but not growth, blocked by conditionaldeletion of 40S ribosomal protein S6. Science. 288:2045–2047. 2000. : :

Examples of ribosomal protein genemutations in human tumors.

Fumagalli S, Di Cara A, Neb-Gulati A, NattF, Schwemberger S, Hall J, Babcock GF, Bernardi R, Pandolfi PP andThomas G: Absence of nucleolar disruption after impairment of 40Sribosome biogenesis reveals an rpL11-translation-dependentmechanism of p53 induction. Nat Cell Biol. 11:501–508. 2009. : :

Examples of ribosomal protein genemutations in human tumors.

Barlow JL, Drynan LF, Hewett DR, HolmesLR, Lorenzo-Abalde S, Lane AL, Jolin HE, Pannell R, Middleton AJ,Wong SH, et al: A p53-dependent mechanism underlies macrocyticanemia in a mouse model of human 5q- syndrome. Nat Med. 16:59–66.2010. : :

pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2

Anderson SJ, Lauritsen JP, Hartman MG,Foushee AM, Lefebvre JM, Shinton SA, Gerhardt B, Hardy RR, OraveczT and Wiest DL: Ablation of ribosomal protein L22 selectivelyimpairs alphabeta T cell development by activation of ap53-dependent checkpoint. Immunity. 26:759–772. 2007. : :

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