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Biosynthesis of proteins on ribosomes.

Glycogen is synthesized andstored mainly in the liver and the muscles.

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Insulin stimulates ofprotein synthesis.

These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasmamembrane and influx of glucose, glycogen synthesis, glycolysisand fatty acid synthesis.

As discussed above, insulin is stimulatory to synthesis of glycogen inthe liver.

During pro­tein synthesis, however, anucleic acid base sequence is converted to a clearly dif­ferent language (i.e.,an amino acid sequence), hence the use of the term "."Because mRNA and amino acid molecules have no natural affinity for each other,it became obvious to researchers (e.g., Francis Crick) that a series of adap­tormolecules are required to mediate the translation process.

Thus, is initially synthesized as a 105 residue preprotein.

One of theDNA strands in the double helix holds the genetic information used for proteinsynthesis.

In addition someinsulin synthesis and release takes place generally at food intake, not justglucose or carbohydrate intake, and the beta cells are also somewhat influencedby the autonomic nervous system.

We examine here the biosynthetic pathways of purine andpyrimidine nucleotides and their regulation, the formation of thedeoxynucleotides, and the degradation of purines and pyrimidines to uric acidand urea.

Glycogen synthase is the regulatory enzyme for glycogen synthesis

coli, most of the control of protein synthesis occurs at the levelof transcription.

Cholesterol biosynthesis
80% of endogenous cholesterol is formed in the liver. Enzymes involved in the synthesis are partly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and partly in the cytoplasm. Acetyl CoA is the precursor. HMG CoA, mevalonate, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, squalene are some of the important intermediate compounds formed during cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol is transported in lipoprotein complexes. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to the deposition of cholesterol on the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis.

Eicosanoids
Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid. Cycloxygenase enzyme catalyzes the reaction in which C20 fatty acid is converted to prostaglandins. Leukotrienes are also derived from arachidonic acid.

However, as glycogen accumulates to high levels (roughly 5% of livermass), further synthesis is strongly suppressed.
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  • Both glycogen synthesis and glycogen breakdown share the ..

    ATP is the most commonly used source but GTP is used in proteinsynthesis as well as a few other reactions.

  • Which of the following is true of glycogen synthesis/degradation?

    calcium binds and leads to the activation of what enzyme in glycogen degradation

  • Glycogen synthesis and degradation are separate

    Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by GSK3 inhibits glycogen synthesis; ..

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Glycogen synthesis and degradation occurs in the liver cells

Nucleotides play a variety of important roles in all cells. They are the activated precursors of DNA and RNA. ATP, an adenine nucleotide, is a universal currency of energy in biological systems. GTP is an essential carrier of chemical energy. Adenine nucleotides are components of the coenzymes NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD and Coenzyme A. IMP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate. There are 11 reactions in the formation of IMP. Nucleoside monophosphates are converted to nucleoside diphosphates by base specific monophosphate kinases. Purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by feedback inhibitor – AMP, GMP and IMP. Recycling of purines formed by the degradation of nucleotides is possible. Pyrimidine ring is synthesized as free pyrimidine and then it is incorporated into the nucleotide. Nucleotides of a cell undergo continuous turnover. Uric acid is the breakdown product of purine nucleotide. Gout is a disease characterized by elevated levels of uric acid in body fluids. Pyrimidines on degradation give rise to carbon dioxide, ammonia, β-alanine and β-amino isobutyrate.

the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogen synthesis.

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synthesis and degradation animation

Nucleotides play a variety of important roles in all cells. They are the activated precursors of DNA and RNA. ATP, an adenine nucleotide, is a universal currency of energy in biological systems. GTP is an essential carrier of chemical energy. Adenine nucleotides are components of the coenzymes NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD and Coenzyme A. IMP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate. There are 11 reactions in the formation of IMP. Nucleoside monophosphates are converted to nucleoside diphosphates by base specific monophosphate kinases. Purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by feedback inhibitor – AMP, GMP and IMP. Recycling of purines formed by the degradation of nucleotides is possible. Pyrimidine ring is synthesized as free pyrimidine and then it is incorporated into the nucleotide. Nucleotides of a cell undergo continuous turnover. Uric acid is the breakdown product of purine nucleotide. Gout is a disease characterized by elevated levels of uric acid in body fluids. Pyrimidines on degradation give rise to carbon dioxide, ammonia, β-alanine and β-amino isobutyrate.

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