Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War, Vol. 2, p. 293.
"Vietnam War." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . (February 2, 2018).
The Vietnam War | Peace History
PSYOP specialists called these notes "The inflation series." The campaign was meant to convince the Vietnamese that the cost of the war would lead to the destruction of their economy. American propagandists, when questioned, stated that this was not a form of economic warfare, and was in fact, simply another in a long line of PSYOP operations. They were quick to point out that the propaganda notes were just a shade lighter in color, the paper just a fraction thinner, and the length of the bill just a bit smaller than the original. In fact, measurement indicates that the forgery may be as much as 3/32 of an inch shorter than a regular banknote, hardly enough for the average person to notice. The fact that a message was added off to the side of the note was enough to allow them to say that no attempt had been made to counterfeit North Vietnamese currency. Within the letter of the law, they are correct in that statement. However, Secret Service agents who investigated a number of the banknotes which had the propaganda message removed, confiscated the bills on the premise that these were counterfeits and would have been accepted as regular currency by the Vietnamese people.
With a civilian director (initially, Barry Zorthian) reporting to the U.S. Information Agency (USIA), JUSPAO integrated the psychological operations of the U.S. Information Service (USIS, USIA's overseas arm), The State Department's U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Joint Chief's Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV), and the U .S. Embassy. At its apex it employed 695 people, 245 Americans and 116 from the military and had an annual budget of 10 million dollars. Zorthian seemed a good choice for the position of director since he had been a combat Marine and a reporter for Magazine before working for the United States Information Agency. An understanding was reached in 1966 that whereas JUSPAO would retain responsibility for overall PSYOP policy and would conduct strategic operations such as the Chieu Hoi surrender program, MACV would be responsible for PSYOP tactical field operations.
Blumenthal’s Words Differ From His History - …
Veterans courageously addressed the issue of atrocities. From January 31-February 2, 1971, VVAW held a three-day “Winter Soldier Investigation” in Detroit, in which over 100 veterans and sixteen civilians described in detail American atrocities in Vietnam. The VVAW proceedings were entered into the Congressional Record by Senator Mark Hatfield of Oregon, who was elected in 1966 on an antiwar platform. Soon after, Rep. Ron Dellums of Oakland, California, elected in 1970 on an antiwar platform, requested a formal Congressional investigation into American atrocities in Vietnam. House leaders declined. Undaunted, Dellums set up an exhibit in an annex to his office that featured four large posters depicting American atrocities. The posters were provided by the Citizens Commission of Inquiry on U.S. War Crimes in Vietnam.
By 1971, the political formula for ending the war had been established. U.S. troops would be withdrawn in stages, in deference to public demand, while the administration would do what it could to help South Vietnam survive without U.S. troops. President Nixon refused to acknowledge the likelihood that continued troop withdrawal would lead to the demise of South Vietnam, whether by treaty or by war. He used every rhetorical sleight-of-hand to present the American exit as “honorable.” The antiwar movement’s political agenda at this point was to ensure that the administration did not backslide and to push up the timetable for withdrawal, which the House of Representatives refused to do.
Propaganda Banknotes of Vietnam - Psywarrior
The documentary made clear that not only was MACV under the control and command of General William C. Westmoreland but that the conspiracy to understate enemy troop strength was carried out at least with Westmoreland's knowledge, acquiescence, and tacit approval. The documentary then charged that the Tet Offensive might have been less surprising and demoralizing had MACV been providing accurate information. Since many historians and military experts consider the Tet Offensive to be the war's final turning point, the documentary suggested that Westmoreland played a significant role in the U.S. defeat in Vietnam.
The documentary reported charges by a number of U.S. Army and central intelligence agency (CIA) intelligence sources, who claimed that prior to the surprise North Vietnamese-Viet Cong led Tet Offensive in January 1968, the U.S. Military Assistance Command in Vietnam, also known as MACV, conspired to mislead President lyndon b. johnson, the American public, and the rest of the military about the enemy's actual strength. The witnesses interviewed for the documentary stated that MACV carried out this deception to make it appear that progress was being made in winning the war of attrition against enemy forces, that the war could be won, and that there was "some light at the end of the tunnel" in what was the longest war in U.S. history.
Propaganda Banknotes of the Vietnam War
What Did Jane Fonda Really Do Over in Hanoi
Jonathan Schell, The Real War: The Classic Reporting on the Vietnam War (New York: Da Capo Press, 2000), p. 13.
She was a symbol of a divided nation
CBS interview with Paul Kattenburg, February 16, 1979, in Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War, p. 161.
Declaration of war by the United States - Wikipedia
James P. Harrison,” History’s Heaviest Bombing,” in Werner and Huynh, The Vietnam War, p. 130.
Early life and military career of John McCain - Wikipedia
USAF Lieutenant Colonel (retired) Jim Foster flew B-52 PSYOP missions out of Anderson AFB, Guam, during the latter stages of the Viet Nam War from July 1972 until early December 1972, and possibly some final missions in January 1973. He was the Co-pilot with the rank of Captain at the time, assigned to a 6-man crew out of the 340th Bomb Squadron, Blytheville AFB, Arkansas. His mission involved a single B-52G bomber assigned to the 72d Strategic Wing, Anderson AFB, Guam, dropping leaflets and other items from an altitude of 33,000 to 35,000 feet off the coast of North Vietnam south of Hanoi but North of the DMZ. When the wind was right his crew dropped the leaflets using a Hayes Dispenser, (AKA CBU-27/B), a huge boxlike aluminum contraption made up of 24 rectangular cells, which could be filled with bomblets or leaflets. Two such dispensers can be fitted into the Bomb bay of a B-52 bomber and drop 25,000 bomblets or millions of leaflets on a single bombing run. On some missions he dropped Propaganda banknotes of North Vietnam, on other missions he dropped small transistor radios that were tuned to the Voice of America. All of the propaganda banknotes he dropped are depicted in this article below, the 1, 2 and 5 dong banknotes coded 4540, 4541 and 4542. Among some of the other leaflets that he saved from his leaflet missions was the Nixon re-election leaflet 4609 depicted below.
PSYOP ORDER OF BATTLE FOR VIETNAM
Withdrawal (196975). The administration of President in 1969 began withdrawing, and instituted a process of "Vietnamization," or turning control of the war over to the South Vietnamese. In 1970, the most significant military activity took place in and , where U.S. B-52 bombers continually pounded the Ho Chi Minh Trail in an effort to cut off supply lines.
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