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Formaldehyde reacts with macromolecules, including DNA.

Photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals rapidly removeformaldehyde from the atmosphere.

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(1945) The reactions of formaldehyde withamino acids and proteins.

Marzulli & Maibach (1973) reported that one of 5 sen-sitized volunteers reacted, under controlled conditions, to a challengeconcentration of 0.01% formaldehyde.

Formaldehyde that escapes metabolism can react withmacromolecules at the site of entry.
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Formaldehyde also reacts with proteins (French & Edsall, 1945) andnucleic acids (Haselkorn & Doty, 1961; Lewin, 1966; Collins & Guild,1968; Feldman, 1973; Chaw et al., 1980); it reacts with single-strandDNA, but not with double-stranded DNA.

(1961) The reaction of formaldehyde withpolynucleotides.

Irritant skin reactions occur through direct contact with formal-dehyde solutions.
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9.2.4.4 Systemic sensitization A case report has been described involving an anaphylactic shockreaction after accidental iv application of formaldehyde duringhaemodialysis treatment due to formaldehyde remaining in the equipmentafter disinfection.

Allergic reactions to cosmetics containing formaldehyde as a pre-servative, especially shampoos, are unusual (Eckardt, 1966) and appearmostly among those who have been sensitized by occupational exposure.

Mechanism of the initial reaction of formaldehydewith DNA.

(1973) Reactions of nucleic acids and nucleoproteinswith formaldehyde.
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These react with OH radicals and ozone toform formaldehyde and/or other aldehydes as intermediates in a seriesof reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of carbon monoxideand dioxide, hydrogen, and water (Zimmermann et al., 1978; Calvert,1980).

Formaldehyde is an inexpensive starting material for a number ofchemical reactions, and a large number of products are made using for-maldehyde as a base.

(1966) Reaction of salmon sperm deoxyribonucleic acid withformaldehyde.
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  • Hantzsch Dihydropyridine (Pyridine) Synthesis

    Formaldehyde is a flammable, colourless, reactive, and readilypolymerized gas at normal temperature.

  • Hantzsch pyridine synthesis - overview - ChemTube3D

    At ground level in the atmosphere, reaction with the OH radical isthe dominant removal process for formaldehyde.

  • Hantzsch pyridine synthesis | BrainyResort

    Formaldehyde is known to be a primary skin and eye irritant, thelocal tissue reaction increasing with increased dose.

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this is called the Boger pyridine synthesis ..

Patch tests performed with formaldehyde challenge concentrations of1% or less resulted in positive reactions in about 2% of all patientstested throughout the world; higher formaldehyde challenge concen-trations may be irritant (Anon., 1987).

Learning from the Hantzsch synthesis

Formaldehyde solution is a primary skin-sensitizing agent inducingallergic contact dermatitis (Type IV, T-cell mediated delayed hypersen-sitivity reaction); it may induce immunological contact urticaria(Type I, perhaps IgE mediated, immediate hypersensitivity reaction).

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An allergic contact dermatitis reaction was provoked by a dose offormaldehyde of 0.25 µg/cm2 skin (challenge dose: 50 µg/cm2 with0.5% percutaneous penetration).

Knorr pyrrole synthesis - Wikipedia

Patch-test studies with differentconcentrations of formaldehyde have shown that concentrations below0.05% rarely elicit an allergic reaction, even in sensitive individuals(Schulz, 1983).

Name Reactions - Organic Chemistry Portal

There is no evidence in the literature of allergic reactivity ofthe mucous membranes of the eyes being caused by airborne formaldehydeor by formaldehyde solutions.

Alkane synthesis by deoxygenation - Organic chemistry

Since differences in indi-vidual reactions to formaldehyde are large in both the normal popu-lation and in hyperreactive and sensitized persons, it is difficult toestimate a concentration guaranteed not to produce negative reactionsin the general population.

General & Introductory Chemistry

9.2.4.4.1 Allergic reaction following the dental use of paraformaldehyde Adverse reactions have been reported following the use of rootcanal filling materials containing paraformaldehyde.

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