Growth Hormone Capacity To Stimulate Protein Synthesis
28/11/2005 · Thyroid Hormone Stimulates Protein Synthesis in the Cardiomyocyte by ..
mRNA synthesis which is the first step of protein synthesis.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated the rapid accumulation of inositol trisphosphate in WB cells, a continuous line of rat hepatic epithelial cells. Since we previously had shown that EGF stimulates EGF receptor synthesis in these cells, we tested whether hormones that stimulate PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis would increase EGF receptor protein synthesis and mRNA levels. Epinephrine, angiotensin II, and [Arg8] vasopressin activate phospholipase C in WB cells as evidenced by the accumulation of the inositol phosphates, inositol monophosphate, inositol biphosphate, and inositol triphosphate. A 3-4-h treatment with each hormone also increased the rate of EGF receptor protein synthesis by 3-6-fold as assessed by immunoprecipitation of EGF receptor from [35S]methionine-labeled cells. Northern blot analyses of WB cell EGF receptor mRNA levels revaled that agents linked to the phosphoinositide signaling system increased receptor mRNA content within 1-2 h. A maximal increase of 3-7-fold was observed after a 3-h exposure of EGF and hormones. The phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), which activates protein kinase C also stimulated EGF receptor synthesis. Pretreatment of WB cells for 18 h with high concentrations of TPA 'down-regulated' protein kinase C and blocked TPA-directed EGF receptor mRNA synthesis. In contrast, the effect of EGF on EGF receptor mRNA levels was not significantly decreased by TPA pretreatment. Epinephrine-induced increases in EGF receptor mRNA were reduced from 4- to 2-fold. Similarly, 18 h TPA pretreatment abolished the effect of TPA on EGF receptor protein synthesis but did not affect EGF-dependent receptor protein synthesis. The 18-h TPA pretreatment diminished by 30-50% the induction of receptor protein synthesis by epinephrine or angiotensin II. We conclude that in WB cells EGF receptor synthesis can be regulated by EGF and other hormones that stimulate PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. In these cells, EGF receptor synthesis appears to be regulated by several mechanisms: one pathway is dependent upon EGF receptor activation and can operate independently of protein kinase C activation: another pathway is correlated with PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis and is dependent, at least in part, upon protein kinase C activation.
T1 - Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hormones stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis and increase EGF receptor protein synthesis and mRNA levels in rat liver epithelial cells. Evidence for protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways
which hormones increase protein synthesis? | Yahoo …
Our study confirms previous observations by our own and other research groups concerning the anabolic effect of T (,) and an age-related up-regulation of both stimulatory and inhibitory muscle growth regulatory genes and accelerated basal muscle protein turnover in women (, , ), which might be indicative of increased skeletal muscle remodeling in post- compared with premenopausal women. In addition, it provides several novel findings regarding female sex hormone action on muscle protein metabolism. We have demonstrated that estradiol has no effect on muscle protein synthesis or the expression of genes involved in the regulation of muscle mass, whereas progesterone has potent stimulatory effects on muscle protein synthesis and MYOD1 mRNA expression. It is therefore unlikely that the greater rate of muscle protein synthesis and overexpression of muscle growth-regulatory genes in older, postmenopausal compared with younger, premenopausal women in the present and other studies (, , ) are due solely to age- and menopause-associated changes in the plasma sex steroid milieu.
Short-term studies have suggested that protein exerts a more positive effect on satiety per calorie than both carbohydrate and fat.47-49 However, this may not translate into eating fewer calories.
25/03/2007 · Which hormones increase protein synthesis
This is accomplished by altering the rate of intracellular protein synthesis, changing the rate of enzyme activity, modifying plasma membrane transport, and by inducing secretory activity (Robergs and Roberts, 1997).
Hormones are able to reach virtually all tissues because they travel in the blood.
While grass-fed beef is an excellent choice, bison's profile has been rising in recent years, and for good reason: It has half the fat of and fewer calories than red meat. According to the USDA, while a 90 percent lean hamburger may average 10 grams of fat, a comparatively sized buffalo burger rings in at two grams of fat with 24 grams of protein, making it one of the leanest meats around. But wait, taking a chance on this unexpected meat will earn you two healthy bonuses: In just one serving you'll get a full day's allowance of vitamin B-12, which has been shown to boost energy (like these ) and help shut down the genes responsible for insulin resistance and the formation of fat cells; additionally, since bison are naturally grass-fed, you can confidently down your burger knowing it's free of the hormones and pollutants than can manifest themselves in your belly fat.
A&P: Chapter 15, Endocrine System Flashcards | Quizlet
A&P: Chapter 15, Endocrine System
Hormone - Wikipedia
-Stimulate protein synthesis ..
One special group of hormones is the tropic hormones that stimulate the hormone production of other ..
shut off the synthesis and release of hormones.
HORMONAL REGULATION OF HUMAN MUSCLE PROTEIN …
Chapter 17 - The Endocrine System Flashcards | Quizlet
In two separate studies, published in the and the , researchers found anabolic hormones--long thought to be essential for building a muscular frame--do not influence muscle protein synthesis, the process that leads to bigger muscles.
Chapter 17 - The Endocrine System
Primary hepatocyte monolayers, derived from chick embryos, can be cultured from the onset in a completely chemically defined medium, free of added hormones. The liver cells synthesize and secrete a wide spectrum of plasma proteins for several days in this serum-free environment. Addition of fetal bovine serum elicits a 3-5-fold increase in the production of certain plasma proteins: fibrinogen, albumin, and the α1-globulin M. This effect of serum is selective; transferrin and plasminogen syntheses are enhanced less than 1.5-fold. Significant stimulation is observed with 0.1% fetal bovine serum, and half-maximal values for individual plasma proteins are obtained with concentrations ranging between 0.4 and 1%. The stimulatory activity of serum shows no developmental or species specificity. Plasma is as active as serum derived from the same blood sample. The hepatocytes respond rapidly to serum, significant changes in albumin synthesis occurring less than 1 h after serum addition or removal. The effect of short exposure is fully reversible. These results establish the capacity of low concentrations of serum to stimulate plasma protein synthesis and underscore the importance of studying the effects of hormones and other factors under serum-free conditions. The findings suggest that, in addition to the classical hormones, ubiquitous but as yet uncharacterized serum components play a role in controlling this major hepatic function.
+The larger protein hormones include 50 to 200 ..
7. What hormone is primarily responsiblefor glucose storage as glycogen; stimulating fat storage, andstimulate protein synthesis? (a) GH; (b) TSH; (c) insulin; (d)cortisol
Hormonal regulation of human muscle protein …
The driving forces underlying this cycle are the hormones related to puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. From puberty on, the waxing and waning (think of moon phases) of estrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle slowly develops the ducts and alveoli; this subtle stimulation of the glands continues until about age 30. Pregnancy stimulates a large rise in both of these hormones, as well as the production of prolactin, human placental lactogen, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and growth hormone, which all help to stimulate alveolar growth. Research has shown that the changes in breast size (volume) that women experience during pregnancy are most closely related to the concentration of human placental lactogen, which is produced only by the placenta and therefore only during pregnancy. At the same time, the glandular tissue of the breast also becomes sensitive to insulin, the hormone that helps bring fuel (glucose) to the cells, while also playing a role in the making, or synthesizing, of milk. Full maturation of the milk-making tissue requires the hormones insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, prolactin, and growth hormone.
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