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How does pH affect the rate of photosynthesis in spinach?

The Carbon cycle is basically a two step process involving photosynthesis and respiration.

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How does pH affect photosynthesis

One important result of lake and reservoir enrichment is increased growth of microscopic floating plants, algae, and the formation of dense mats of larger floating plants such as water hyacinths (Photos 1 and 2) and Nile cabbage. Growth results from the process of which is how the plants generate organic compounds and biomass through the uptake of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and others) from the soil and water. In the process light acts as the energy source and carbon dioxide dissolved in water as the carbon source. As a result of the photosynthetic process oxygen is also produced.

Both photosynthetic and respiratory pathways are affected adversely by ammonia.

Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion References How pH of the water source affects the rate of photosynthesis in spinach leaves By: Sorna Sarker, Angeliz Vargas, Justin Morin Research Question Background Hypothesis Materials Procedure Graph Data Table Variables and Groups Set-Up Will a basic, neutral, or acidic environment maximize the rate of photosynthesis?

How Does Photosynthesis Affect the Atmosphere of the Planet

However, actual intake may have been lower, because ammonium chloride is known to affect the appetite and may render the water less palatable.

As a generalization, aerobic nitrification takes place in the top 1-2 inches of substrate (deeper in courser substrate, or more shallow in fine sand). While nitrogen fixing anaerobic bacteria oxidize nitrates in an area of 2-4 inches of substrate (again deeper for course media, more shallow for fine sand). Finally Sulfur fixing anaerobic bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfides generally live in substrate over 3-4 inches in depth.

This generalization can very by substrate size, amount of plant roots and depth thereof as well as how deep certain worms, copepods dig into the substrate. Use of airline deep under sand beds over 5-6 inches that products very limited and controlled bubbles can allow for more de-nitrification while further limiting sulfur reduction.
The picture to the left/above displays this generalization where aerobic nitrification, anaerobic de-nitrification, and anaerobic sulfur reducing occurs based on substrate depth and substrate size (fine to coarse). .

It is also noteworthy that many premium aquarium/pond cycling aids or waste digesters such as SeaChem Stability or API PondCare Pond Zyme contain anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and can be useful to add during spikes in the bio load of an aquarium or pond to aid in nitrate reduction and lower incidence of Hydrogen Sulfide production from decaying organic wastes (which can also affect water clarity and algae blooms).

The production of Hydrogen Sulfide in aquariums (both salt and even more so freshwater) is a controversial subject, often with unclear answers as to whether anaerobic de-nitrification is beneficial in freshwater due to the POSSIBLE production of Hydrogen Sulfide.
With the most current research (although admittedly not conclusive in my view), you CAN have anaerobic de--nitrification and NOT have dangerous levels of Hydrogen Sulfide produced.A tell-tale sign of Hydro Sulfide production is black areas in the deep areas of sand or substrate, whether freshwater, marine, or especially ponds. The rotten egg odor is another sign although as Hydrogen Sulfide levels in the air increase, research has shown that humans olfactory senses tend to block out the smell.

One key to allow de-nitrification without production of Hydrogen Sulfide is to allow some oxygen penetration of the substrate and as well. In saltwater aquariums, worms, copepods, etc often help perform this work. In freshwater, plant roots achieve this well and also remove raw ammonia as well as nitrates.
Careful vacuuming (or even substrate stirring) can also help, although in a deep sand bed excessive "deep" vacuuming can release hydrogen sulfide that would otherwise be harmlessly trapped in the deepest areas (generally over 4 inches).



are an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. Some are strictly aerobic, but many are facultative anaerobes (they can survive in either the presence or absence of oxygen).
Heterotrophic Bacteria are generally found in most over the counter aquarium cycling products (especially "Sludge Removers") due to their portability and quick activity.
Heterotrophs can be either gram-positive (ex: Bacillus) or gram-negative (ex: Pseudomonas) which in the case of Pseudomonas many gram negative aquarium treatments (such as Kanamycin) can be effective against Pseudomonas while not harming true Autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.

Another point is growth (which is why Heterotrophic bacteria are favored for cycling products); nitrifying (Autotrophic) bacteria will double in population every 15-24 hours under optimal growth conditions. Heterotrophic bacteria, on the other hand, can reproduce in as little as 15 minutes to 1 hour.
Unfortunately research has shown that up to one million times more of these heterotrophic bacteria are required to perform a comparable level of ammonia conversion that is attained by true autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, in part due to the fact of Heterotrophic Bacteria to convert many organics into food.

The use of Heterotrophic Bacteria to cycle an aquarium (or pond) can result in a bio environment that does not contain the necessary Autotrophic nitrifying bacteria to rapidly adapt to changes in bio load either from added fish, wastes, or similar; thus often resulting in sudden spikes in ammonia or nitrites when these Heterotrophic bacteria cycling products are not added in a timely or regular schedule!The other danger is cloudy water.

For this reason products that contain only Heterotrophic Bacteria such as "Hagen Cycle" or even the popular Eco-Complete planted substrate SHOULD BE AVOIDED in some aquariums!

Low pH and Nitrification ;

Nitrification involving AOB & NOB bacteria is different at pH levels of above 7.0 versus below 6.0.

Toxic Ammonia (NH3) changes to ammonium under 6.0 and ammonium (non toxic NH4) switches back to toxic NH3 over 7.0
until the nitrification process re-establishes itself at the higher pH

The cause of this change in the nitrification process is still not clearly understood.
From:


From the above article and quote, I would postulate that a change in Heterotrophic bacteria along with possible Redox Reactions or lack there of (a low pH below 6.0 is very oxidizing with little/no reduction which for this reason alone is not a healthy environment.
As well, Autotrophic bacterial adaptations may be part of this process and why there is an interruption in nitrification from changes in pH and between NH3 & NH4.
Since typical real world aquarium environments invariably are going to contain Heterotrophic bacteria (from fish food waste, etc.) and these tests seemed to lock out these Heterotrophic bacteria (using only ammonium chloride), this bacterium might be part of the cause.


During the nitrification process carbonates are used by the aquarium or pond to counter acids produced during nitrification (or other organic breakdown), however without an adequate KH (even for Amazon River Fish such as Discus or German Rams), subtle or even sudden changes in pH can occur that affects the nitrogen cycle
References:


Keeping a low pH/KH can be a double edged sword where by a simple procedure such as a water change with slightly higher pH water can result in an immediate conversion of ammonium (NH4) to deadly ammonia (NH3) with disastrous results.
This low pH, poor nitrifying environment also easily allows for the growth of pathogenic Fungi/Saprolegnia and a depressed Redox balance.

See References:

Ammonia (EHC 54, 1986) - INCHEM

At a pH of 4.5, however, the concentration of ammonia in the rumen did not affect the absorption across the epithelium.

Application of anhydrous ammonia to soil may strongly affect soil microorganisms; however, the effect has been attributed more to alterations in pH than to ammonia toxicity per se.

Factors that have been shown to affect ammonia toxicity include dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, pH, previous acclimatization to ammonia, fluctuating or intermittent exposures, carbon dioxide concentration, salinity, and the presence of other toxic substances.

of my experiment is to find out how light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis.
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Aquarium planting tips and care

Wastes from feeding have a tremendous influence on pond water quality. Microorganisms decompose organic matter in uneaten feed and feces easily. However, the decay process removes dissolved oxygen from the water and releases carbon dioxide, ammonia, phosphate and other mineral nutrients. The culture species (shrimp) also consumes dissolved oxygen and excretes minerals similar to those generated by decomposition.
Ammonia and phosphate stimulate the growth of plankton and benthic algae. These organisms produce dissolved oxygen through photosynthesis in daytime, but consume oxygen continuously. Algae have a life span of few days, so they die continually and contribute organic matter to ponds.
Algal abundance in ponds increases as feed input increases. Ponds with dense blooms of plankton algae typically have high dissolved-oxygen concentrations during the day, but at night, lower dissolved oxygen can stress or kill the culture species.
When feeding rates exceed 30-40 kg/ha/day, dissolved oxygen concentrations often fall to less than 3-4 ppm at night. Low dissolved oxygen stresses most culture species, so at high feeding rate, mechanical aeration is necessary. Dissolved oxygen levels should be monitored, even in ponds with mechanical aeration, to avoid excessive feed input.
Water exchange sometimes is used to flush plankton and nutrients from ponds and improve water quality. However, this practice can lead to water quality deterioration in receiving water bodies.
Ammonia can increases to toxic concentration in ponds with high feeding rates. Moreover, if sediment in ponds becomes highly enriched with organic matter, it can become anaerobic. Nitrite and hydrogen sulfide originating in anaerobic sediment also can be toxic to aquatic animals.

The hill rxn in isolated chloroplasts post ..

Particulate matter such as cement dust, magnesium-lime dust and carbon soot deposited on vegetation can inhibit the normal respiration and photosynthesis mechanisms within the leaf. Cement dust may cause chlorosis and death of leaf tissue by the combination of a thick crust and alkaline toxicity produced in wet weather. The dust coating () also may affect the normal action of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals applied as sprays to foliage. In addition, accumulation of alkaline dusts in the soil can increase soil pH to levels adverse to crop growth.

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