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Photosystem II Inhibitors - Herbicide Symptoms

the concentration of atrazine needed to inhibit photosynthesis by 50% in ..

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Atrazine is an herbicide of the triazine class

The photosynthesis inhibitors include triazines, phenylureas, uracils,benzothiadiazoles, nitriles, carbamate and dicarboxylic acid. Photosynthesis inhibitorsshut down the photosynthetic (food producing) process in susceptible plants by binding tospecific sites within the plant chloroplast. Inhibition of photosynthesis could result ina slow starvation of the plant; however, in many situations rapid death occurs perhapsfrom the production of secondary toxic substances.

A structurally diverse range of herbicides, e
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These herbicides all inhibit photosynthesis in susceptible plants.Triazines:atrazine (numerous premixes), metribuzin (Sencor), and simazine (Princep).

Benzothiadiazoles: bentazon (Basagran), Phenylpyridazines: pyridate (Tough), and Benzonitriles: bromoxynil (Buctril)
Bipyridiliums: paraquat (Gramoxone Max, Gramoxone Extra, Gramoxone Inteon) and diquat (Reward).

How Do Herbicides Affect Photosynthesis? | Garden …

retroflexus is readily controlled by most herbicides which inhibit photosynthesis, such as atrazine, ..
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Mechanism of Action: Paraquat is a post-emergence herbicide with contact foliar activity. It is rapidly absorbed by green tissue and inhibits photosynthesis. The specific site of action is different from that of atrazine, and the results are a much more rapid onset of leaf death. Regardless, paraquat causes the formation of radical oxygen, which is toxic to plant cell membranes, within the chloroplast.

Photosynthetic Inhibitors control many broadleaf and some grass weeds. In general, these herbicides inhibit photosynthesis by binding to D1 proteins of the photosystem II complex in chloroplast thylakoid membranes. Herbicide binding at this protein blocks electron transport and stops CO2 fixation and production of energy needed for plant growth. The death of plants, however, does not occur primarily from photosynthates depletion but rather from an indirect effect on other processes. Blocking electron transport in PSII systems promotes the formation of highly reactive molecules that initiate a chain of reactions causing lipid and protein membrane destruction that results in membrane leakage allowing cells and cell organelles to dry and rapidly disintegrate. In addition, some PSII Inhibitors affect other plant processes such as carotenoid biosynthesis and synthesis of anthocyanin, RNA, and proteins.

To appreciate how herbicides affect photosynthesis, ..

Inhibition of microphytobenthic photosynthesis by the ..
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Mechanism of Action: Paraquat is a post-emergence herbicide with contact foliar activity. It is rapidly absorbed by green tissue and inhibits photosynthesis. The specific site of action is different from that of atrazine, and the results are a much more rapid onset of leaf death. Regardless, paraquat causes the formation of radical oxygen, which is toxic to plant cell membranes, within the chloroplast.

Inhibition of microphytobenthic photosynthesis
Photo provided by Flickr
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    Photosystem II Inhibitors

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    these herbicides inhibit photosynthesis by binding to D1 proteins of the photosystem II complex in ..

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