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Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough.

It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss.

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In what order should you offer your criticisms of your opponent?

Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument.But "explain yourself fully" also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing.

It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration.

Write a DraftOnce you've thought about your argument, and written an outline for your paper, then you're ready to sit down and compose a complete draft.

Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft.

These early stages will involve , but you won't yet be trying to write a complete paper.

(In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.You can assume that is stupid (see above).

Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them?Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says.

Then you should come back to it and rewrite it.

It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper.

It isn’t understood. It’s difficult to do well. It’s not easily publishable. It just happens to be a farbetter paradigm , asother paradigms are in other situations and for otherpurposes.

Through reflection, Schön argues on the basis of much experience. This is valuable reading for any professional, or anyone involved in educating other professionals. Its readability is a bonus.

And so on.The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure.
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  • You should make the structure of your paper obvious to the reader.

    This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

  • Thus Q." then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q.

    Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument.

  • Consider the following two paper fragments:

    So it's good to discuss the issues we raise in class with each other, and with friends who aren't taking the class.

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Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is?

And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand.

Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem.

Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct.If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay.

In addition, be sure to say in the paper it is relevant.

These are all important and philosophically valuable results.So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannotprovide satisfying answers to them all.

By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless:

Of course, there's often no way to deal with the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing.Your paper doesn't always have to provide a definite solution to a problem, or a straight yes or no answer to a question.

Try harder to figure out what's motivating them.

You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced.Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be.

So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying.

In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text.

There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort.

Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul.

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