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Formally we do not reject the null hypothesis.

Example: We compare the observed mean birth weight with the hypothesized values of 18 grams.

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Formally we reject the null hypothesis.

I begin by raising five important methodological problems about this typical experiment. First, there is not a great difference in improvement rate of the clinically depressed patients between and among the three groups (61.8% for moclobemide, 66.4% for imipramine, and 37.3% for the placebo groups). True, the main purpose of the study was to the efficacy of moclobemide and imipramine in relieving clinical depression. However, from a philosophical, theoretical or even methodological perspective, what is missing or consistently overlooked in these studies is an adequate and rigorous account of the interpretation of the data in terms and, in particular, in terms of . The monoamine hypothesis is an attempt to explain-in terms of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry-the cause of clinical depression. But as I shall note in my subsequent questions, a close examination of the hypothesis and the experimental data reveals serious weaknesses about both the hypothesis itself and about the scientific and experimental methodology involved. Second, all these comparative studies leave unanswered the precise, detailed mechanism of the causal nature of the placebo. If the drug imipramine, for example, is considered causally efficacious for the 66.8% who improved, why is not also considered equally causally efficacious for the 37.3% who also improved?

Specifically, we identify the mean we expect if the null hypothesis is true.

: When we, in everyday language, say that we believe in something, we may mean many things — that we support a cause, that we have faith in an idea, or that we think something is accurate. The word is often associated with ideas about which we have strong convictions, regardless of the evidence for or against them. This can generate confusion when a scientist claims to "believe in" a scientific hypothesis or theory. In fact, the scientist probably means that he or she "" the idea — in other words, that he or she thinks the scientific idea is the most accurate available based on a critical evaluation of the evidence. Scientific ideas should always be accepted or rejected based on the evidence for or against them — not based on faith, dogma, or personal conviction.

The present hypothesis is based upon the following assumptions:

The experimental results look really different than we expect according to the null hypothesis.

These five areas are covered drawing on the AS and A2 material – this is a synoptic element of the Edexcel specification
Reflection and Improvement
Using the markscheme and the information you have organised around 'Bob', go back to your 4 mark answer from the start of the lesson.
What had you done well?
What would you now change or add?
How would you ensure you gain the full 4 marks in the exam?
Future learning and uses
Social causation (environmental breeder hypothesis)and social drift can be used as comparison in the following 12 mark question:

There are many explanations for schizophrenia including biological ones.
Describe one explanation for schizophrenia and compare this with one other explanation.

Here's what happens:

The P value is way below .00001, so we reject the null hypothesis that there is an unrestrictive selection process for admitting students to UNC.

There are four steps involved in hypothesis testing:

If we decide that they are significantly different, we reject the null hypothesis that .

Social explanations were the least likely to include any evidence from research."

Describe one explanation for schizophrenia
(4 marks) [June 2010]
You have 5 minutes to:
Describe the ‘environmental breeder’ (or social causation) hypothesis as an explanation of schizophrenia (4 marks)

Psychology A2 Revision
With Miss Davies
Biological explanation: the dopamine hypothesis
Let's do something about this?
Learning Objectives:
To understand Social explanations of Schizophrenia
To be able to gain 4/4 in an exam question


One case can be explained using the environmental breeder hypothesis (or social causation hypothesis), the other using the idea of social drift .

Read their brief stories and match all of the relevant information to explain their disorder from a social perspective.
Bob and Jim
Social explanation: The ‘environmental breeder’ hypothesis
Explanations for,
features of and treatments for
Examiner's Report: "The least successful
explanation tended to be ‘social breeder’.

In this section we can consider directional, "One-Tailed", hypothesis testing.
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  • They make it easier to reject null hypotheses.

    In the second step of the procedure we identify the kind of data that is expected if the null hypothesis is true.

  • Research and Evaluation: Hypothesis Testing - BrainMass

    However: The techniques of hypothesis testing allow us to know the probability of making a type I error.

  • What value is business research and hypothesis testing to a company

    Evaluation of hypothesis

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Hypothesis Definition, Checklist, and Examples

By using a very straightforward example, we have only one dependent variable and one independent variable although studies can examine any number of dependent and independent variables. Now that we know what our variables are, we can look at how to set out the null and alternative hypothesis on the .

how do you evaluate a hypothesis? | Yahoo Answers

CORRECTION: Perhaps because the Scientific Method presents a linear and rigid representation of the process of science, many people think that doing science involves closely following a series of steps, with no room for creativity and inspiration. In fact, many scientists recognize that creative thinking is one of the most important skills they have — whether that creativity is used to come up with an alternative hypothesis, to devise a new way of testing an idea, or to look at old data in a new light. Creativity is critical to science!

Hypothesis Testing - Structure and the research, null …

We do this by comparing the sample mean and the population mean hypothesized under the null hypothesis and decide if they are "significantly different".

Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis

We decide: "The data (and its sample mean) are significantly different than the value of the mean hypothesized under the null hypothesis, at the .01 level of significance." This decision is likely to be wrong (Type I error) 1 time out of 100.

Hypothesis Testing - Definition, Steps, Procedure, Types …

The experimental results don't look different than we expect according to the null hypothesis, but they are, perhaps because the effect isn't very big.

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