Language Learning and Teaching: Krashen's Input Hypothesis
See here an enlightening video by Krashen about comprehensible input
The Monitor Hypothesis: Definition and Criticism
The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship betweenacquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule.
The Natural Order hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
SLAEncyclopediaF10 - Natural Order Hypothesis …
The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how thelearner acquires a second language – how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'.According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. We can then define 'Comprehensible Input' as the target language that the learner would not be able to produce but can still understand. It goes beyond the choice of words and involves presentation of context, explanation, rewording of unclear parts, the use of visual cues and meaning negotiation. The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience.
Krashen further claims there are implications for foreign language teaching practices. That is to say, research predicts that certain characteristics must be present in order to have successful second language teaching programs: the programs must have abundant comprehension input, the programs will not force students to speak before they are ready to speak and the programs must emphasize the fact that grammar rules have their place within second language teaching and should not overshadow the understanding of a message. Krashen concludes the article by asserting that theoretical research, applied research, and teacher ideas and experiences can be combined to further progress in foreign language education.
Comprehensible Input | essaywizards
You can use the TI 83 calculator for hypothesis testing, but the calculator won’t figure out the null and alternate hypotheses; that’s up to you to read the question and input it into the calculator.
Krashen then provides a summary of past theoretical research by presenting five hypotheses about second language acquisition: the acquisition/learning hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the input hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis. The acquisition/learning hypothesis states that second language ability can develop differently and separately through acquisition and learning. Acquisition is a subconscious process and is considered the implicit knowledge a learner has of his language. However, learning is a conscious process that embodies grammar rules of the language as well as error correction. The natural order hypothesis states there is a predictable order that we acquire grammatical structure i.e. negation sequences which can be altered by first language influence, but cannot be altered by the effects of instruction (Krashen 36). The monitor hypothesis claims that acquisition, not learning, is responsible for our fluency in second language performance [and that] conscious learning can be used as an editor to make corrections and change the form of output(Krashen 37). The input hypothesis asserts there are three corresponding areas of how we acquire a second language. First, we try to understand input that is just beyond our present capability. Second, we do not teach speaking but give acquirers comprehensible input where speech will emerge (Krashen 38). Third, we know that further development in second language acquisition will occur when liberal amounts of input are available for the acquirer and when that input is understood by the acquirer; grammatically sequenced input is not helpful (Krashen 38). The claim of the affective filter hypothesis is that three variables influence the success in second language acquisition: anxiety, motivation and self-confidence; these variables inhibit the learner from fully using input. Krashen abbreviates these hypotheses by stating that comprehensible input is the true and only causative variable in second language acquisition which predicts that other variables are actually intervening variables for comprehensive input(Krashen 40).
Criticisms of krashen’s five hypotheses (full) - SlideShare
Criticisms of Krashen’s Five Hypotheses Doreen, ..
Learn about Stephen Krashen's acquisition-learning hypothesis as well as the major criticism of the hypothesis.
Criticisms of krashen’s five hypotheses (full) ..
What is the monitor in Krashen's Monitor Hypothesis? …
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