Mark Heim' s proposal of multiple religious ends
Kramer, Clyde Y. 1956 Extension of Multiple Range Tests to Group Means With Unequal Number of Replications. 12:307–310.
Beyond pluralism: a critical examination of S. Mark …
Analysis-of-variance are unaffected by linear transformation of the observations—that is, by changes in the of the form , where and are constants ( ≠ 0). Multiplying every observation by multiplies every mean square by . Adding to every observation does not change the mean squares. Thus, if observations are two-decimal numbers running from, say, –1.22 upward, one could, to simplify calculations, drop the decimal (multiply each number by 100) and then add 122 to each observation. The lowest observation would become 100 (–1.22) + 122 = 0. Each mean square would become 1002 = 10,000 times as large as for the decimal fractions. With the increasing availability of high-speed digital computers, coding of data is becoming less important than it was formerly.
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Mancini, A. D., Bonanno, G., & Clark, A. E. (2011). Stepping off the hedonic treadmill. , (3), 144–152. doi:10.1027/1614–0001/a000047. Theorists have long maintained that people react to major life events but then eventually return to a setpoint of subjective well–being. Yet prior research is inconclusive regarding the extent of interindividual variability. Recent theoretical models suggest that there should be heterogeneity in long–term stress responding (Bonanno, 2004; Muthén & Muthén, 2000). To test this idea, we used latent growth mixture modeling to identify specific patterns of individual variation in response to three major life events (bereavement, divorce, and marriage). A four–class trajectory solution provided the best fit for bereavement and marriage, while a three–class solution provided the best fit for divorce. Relevant covariates predicted trajectory class membership. The modal response across events was a relatively flat trajectory (i.e., no change). Nevertheless, some trajectories diverged sharply from the modal response. Despite the tendency to maintain preevent levels of SWB, there are multiple and often divergent trajectories in response to bereavement, divorce, and marriage, underscoring the essential role of individual differences.
Beyond pluralism : a critical examination of S
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Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Scollon, C. N. (2006). Beyond the hedonic treadmill: revising the adaptation theory of well–being. , (4), 305–14. doi:10.1037/0003–066X.61.4.305. According to the hedonic treadmill model, good and bad events temporarily affect happiness, but people quickly adapt back to hedonic neutrality. The theory, which has gained widespread acceptance in recent years, implies that individual and societal efforts to increase happiness are doomed to failure. The recent empirical work outlined here indicates that 5 important revisions to the treadmill model are needed. First, individuals' set points are not hedonically neutral. Second, people have different set points, which are partly dependent on their temperaments. Third, a single person may have multiple happiness set points: Different components of well–being such as pleasant emotions, unpleasant emotions, and life satisfaction can move in different directions. Fourth, and perhaps most important, well–being set points can change under some conditions. Finally, individuals differ in their adaptation to events, with some individuals changing their set point and others not changing in reaction to some external event. These revisions offer hope for psychologists and policy–makers who aim to decrease human misery and increase happiness.
Bonanno, G., Galea, S., Bucciarelli, A., & Vlahov, D. (2007). What predicts psychological resilience after disaster? The role of demographics, resources, and life stress. , (5), 671–82. doi:10.1037/0022–006X.75.5.671. A growing body of evidence suggests that most adults exposed to potentially traumatic events are resilient. However, research on the factors that may promote or deter adult resilience has been limited. This study examined patterns of association between resilience and various sociocontextual factors. The authors used data from a random–digit–dial phone survey (N = 2,752) conducted in the New York, NY City area after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack. Resilience was defined as having 1 or 0 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and as being associated with low levels of depression and substance use. Multivariate analyses indicated that the prevalence of resilience was uniquely predicted by participant gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, level of trauma exposure, income change, social support, frequency of chronic disease, and recent and past life stressors. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. [Study of predictors of resilience using multivariate analyses and population–based data set.]
Dreams fulfilled: The pluralism of religious ends
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Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. , (5), 1029–46. doi:10.1037/a0015141. How and why do moral judgments vary across the political spectrum? To test moral foundations theory (J. Haidt & J. Graham, 2007; J. Haidt & C. Joseph, 2004), the authors developed several ways to measure people's use of 5 sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. Across 4 studies using multiple methods, liberals consistently showed greater endorsement and use of the Harm/care and Fairness/reciprocity foundations compared to the other 3 foundations, whereas conservatives endorsed and used the 5 foundations more equally. This difference was observed in abstract assessments of the moral relevance of foundation–related concerns such as violence or loyalty (Study 1), moral judgments of statements and scenarios (Study 2), "sacredness" reactions to taboo trade–offs (Study 3), and use of foundation–related words in the moral texts of religious sermons (Study 4). These findings help to illuminate the nature and intractability of moral disagreements in the American "culture war."
Gorin, S. S. (2010). Theory, measurement, and controversy in positive psychology, health psychology, and cancer: basics and next steps. , (1), 43–7. doi:10.1007/s12160–010–9171–y. The aims of this commentary are two–fold: First, to amplify some of the points that Aspinwall, Tedeschi, Coyne, Tennen, and Ranchor have raised, noting the importance of a return to basics. Second, to posit next steps in theory development and methods at the intersection of health psychology, positive psychology, and cancer. Additional theory development, more applications of large prospective studies, and instrument refinements are warranted to understand the effects of positive constructs on health outcomes and adaptation to cancer. This area of research would be strengthened by studies that incorporate survival, health–related quality of life, and well–being outcome measures, using cancer registries and/or multiple raters. More observational studies are necessary. Attention to social justice questions is suggested in future studies at the intersection of these fields.
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Two religious ends may represent two human ..
The Diversity of Religious Ends - ResearchGate
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The Diversity of Religious Ends.
"Beyond pluralism: a critical examination of S. Mark …
Hannah, S. T., Woolfolk, R. L., & Lord, R. G. (2009). Leader self–structure: A framework for positive leadership. , (2), 269–290. doi:10.1002/job.586. We expand the conceptualization of positive leadership and hypothesize that leaders' ability to influence followers across varied complex situations will be enhanced through the development of a rich and multifaceted self–construct. Utilizing self–complexity theory and other aspects of research on self–representation, we show how the structure and structural dynamics of leaders' self–constructs are linked to their varied role demands by calling forth cognitions, affects, goals and values, expectancies, and self–regulatory plans that enhance performance. Through this process, a leader is able to bring the "right stuff" (the appropriate ensemble of attributes) to bear on and succeed in the multiple challenges of leadership. We suggest future research to develop dimensional typologies related to leadership–relevant aspects of the self and also to link individual positive self–complexity to more aggregate positive organizational processes.
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Judge, T. A., Heller, D., & Mount, M. K. (2002). Five–factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A meta–analysis. , (3), 530–541. doi:10.1037/0021–9010.87.3.530. This study reports results of a meta–analysis linking traits from the 5–factor model of personality to overall job satisfaction. Using the model as an organizing framework, 334 correlations from 163 independent samples were classified according to the model. The estimated true score correlations with job satisfaction were –.29 for Neuroticism, .25 for Extraversion, .02 for Openness to Experience, .17 for Agreeableness, and .26 for Conscientiousness. Results further indicated that only the relations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with job satisfaction generalized across studies. As a set, the Big Five traits had a multiple correlation of .41 with job satisfaction, indicating support for the validity of the dispositional source of job satisfaction when traits are organized according to the 5–factor model.
The Diversity of Religious Ends
Froman, L. (2010). Positive psychology in the workplace [Special issue]. , (2), 59–69. doi:10.1007/s10804–009–9080–0. An economy in a downward spiral, rising unemployment, anxieties about future job loss, lack of access to affordable health care, a crisis in the financial industry, and declining consumer confidence are among some of the challenges creating significant stress in the lives of workers and their families. What impact are these stressors having on the day–to–day lives of people in the workplace? What role do concepts of positive psychology have in helping people to not only cope more effectively, but open their hearts and minds to move forward with newfound confidence, resilience, determination, hope, and vision for a better future? How can workers and their organizations create a more positive and proactive workplace that bridges economic and human goals? The purpose of this article is to examine these questions through an integrative analysis of conceptual and empirical approaches to positive organizational behavior and outcomes. Theory and research covering such areas as self–determining behavior patterns, emotional intelligence, psychologic capital, innovation, and workplace change are described, analyzed, and applied to individuals, groups, and the overall organizational system. These themes come together through the concept of a virtuous organization. These organizations have cultures infused with a strong ethical–moral foundation and leaders who bring out the best of their employees. Organizations of virtue strive to do well by doing good and strive to do good by doing well. These organizations succeed by having multiple bottom lines, not just economic ones. As such, they bridge the goals of economic development with human development.
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