2. Explain each step in the scientificmethod.
The Scientific Method:
fact hypothesis law principle scientificmethod theory
CORRECTION: This misconception is based on the idea of falsification, philosopher Karl Popper's influential account of scientific justification, which suggests that all science can do is reject, or falsify, hypotheses that science cannot find evidence that one idea over others. Falsification was a popular philosophical doctrine especially with scientists but it was soon recognized that falsification wasn't a very complete or accurate picture of how scientific knowledge is built. In science, ideas can never be completely proved or completely disproved. Instead, science accepts or rejects ideas based on supporting and refuting evidence, and may revise those conclusions if warranted by new evidence or perspectives.
Grammatical variants of the term ‘observation’ have beenapplied to impressively different perceptual and non-perceptualprocess and to records of the results they produce. Their diversity isa reason to doubt whether general philosophical accounts ofobservation, observables, and observational data can tellepistemologists as much as local accounts grounded in close studies ofspecific kinds of cases. Furthermore, scientists continue to find waysto produce data that can’t be called observational without stretchingthe term to the point of vagueness.
For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, ..
Example: In the early 20th century, after repeated tests and rejection of all competing theories Mendel's Laws of Heredity were accepted by the general scientific community.
The identification of observation and perceptual experience persistedwell into the 20th century—so much so that CarlHempel could characterize the scientific enterprise as an attempt topredict and explain the deliverances of the senses (Hempel 1952, 653).This was to be accomplished by using laws or lawlike generalizationsalong with descriptions of initial conditions, correspondence rules,and auxiliary hypotheses to derive observation sentences describingthe sensory deliverances of interest. Theory testing was treated as amatter of comparing observation sentences describing observations madein natural or laboratory settings to observation sentences that shouldbe true according to the theory to be tested. This makes it imperativeto ask what observation sentences report. Even though scientists oftenrecord their evidence non-sententially, e.g., in the form of pictures,graphs, and tables of numbers, some of what Hempel says about themeanings of observation sentences applies to non-sententialobservational records as well.
Scientific Hypothesis, Theory, Law Definitions - …
Many of the things scientists investigate do not interact with humanperceptual systems as required to produce perceptual experiences ofthem. The methods investigators use to study such things argue againstthe idea—however plausible it may once have seemed—thatscientists do or should rely exclusively on their perceptual systemsto obtain the evidence they need. Thus Feyerabend proposed as athought experiment that if measuring equipment was rigged up toregister the magnitude of a quantity of interest, a theory could betested just as well against its outputs as against records of humanperceptions (Feyerabend 1969, 132–137).
The fact that science is seldom a solitary pursuit suggests that onemight be able to use pragmatic considerations to finesse questionsabout what observation reports express. Scientificclaims—especially those with practical and policyapplications—are typically used for purposes that are bestserved by public evaluation. Furthermore the development andapplication of a scientific theory typically requires collaborationand in many cases is promoted by competition. This, together with thefact that investigators must agree to accept putative evidence beforethey use it to test a theoretical claim, imposes a pragmatic conditionon observation reports: an observation report must be such thatinvestigators can reach agreement relatively quickly and relativelyeasily about whether it provides good evidence with which to test atheory (Cf. Neurath 1913). Feyerabend took this requirement seriouslyenough to characterize observation sentences pragmatically in terms ofwidespread decidability. In order to be an observation sentence, hesaid, a sentence must be contingently true or false, and such thatcompetent speakers of the relevant language can quickly andunanimously decide whether to accept or reject it on the basis whathappens when they look, listen, etc. in the appropriate way under theappropriate observation conditions (Feyerabend 1959, 18ff).
What Is a Scientific Hypothesis? | Definition of Hypothesis
For example, a scientist can form a hypothesis that a certain ..
What is a scientific theory?
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect ..
To scientists, a theory is a coherent explanation for a large number of facts and observations about the natural world.
The formal scientific definition of theory is quite different ..
Lots of historical and scientific information about Gregor Mendel and his work can be found at the .
Scientific Hypothesis, Theory, or Law? - Futurism
Francis Bacon argued long ago that the best way to discover thingsabout nature is to use experiences (his term for observations as wellas experimental results) to develop and improve scientific theories(Bacon1620 49ff). The role of observational evidence in scientificdiscovery was an important topic for Whewell (1858) and Mill (1872)among others in the 19th century. Recently, Judaea Pearl,Clark Glymour, and their students and associates addressed itrigorously in the course of developing techniques for inferring claimsabout causal structures from statistical features of the data theygive rise to (Pearl, 2000; Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines 2000). Butsuch work is exceptional. For the most part, philosophers followedKarl Popper who maintained, contrary to the title of one of his bestknown books, that there is no such thing as a ‘logic ofdiscovery’.(Popper 1959, 31) Drawing a sharp distinction betweendiscovery and justification, the standard philosophical literaturedevotes most of its attention to the latter.
10/07/2017 · Scientific Hypothesis, Theory, ..
CORRECTION: Because of some vocal individuals (both inside and outside of science) stridently declaring their beliefs, it's easy to get the impression that science and religion are at war. In fact, people of many different faiths and levels of scientific expertise see no contradiction at all between science and religion. Because science deals only with phenomena and explanations, it cannot support or contradict the existence of entities like God. To learn more, visit our side trip .
a scientist must create a hypothesis, a potential answer ..
CORRECTION: The feats accomplished through the application of scientific knowledge are truly astounding. Science has helped us eradicate deadly diseases, communicate with people all over the world, and build that make our lives easier everyday. But for all scientific innovations, the costs must be carefully weighed against the benefits. And, of course, there's no guarantee that solutions for some problems (e.g., finding an HIV vaccine) exist though science is likely to help us discover them if they do exist. Furthermore, some important human concerns (e.g. some spiritual and aesthetic questions) cannot be addressed by science at all. Science is a marvelous tool for helping us understand the natural world, but it is not a cure-all for whatever problems we encounter.
What Is a Scientific Theory? | Definition of Theory
CORRECTION: It's true that some scientific research is performed without any attention to its applications, but this is certainly not true of all science. Many scientists choose specific areas of research (e.g., malaria genetics) because of the practical ramifications new knowledge in these areas might have. And often, basic research that is performed without any aim toward potential applications later winds up being extremely useful. To learn about some of the many applications of scientific knowledge visit
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