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The Differences Between Inductive and Deductive …

On the other hand, deductive reasoning is narrowin nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypothesis.

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Inductive and deductive reasoning are often confused

The deductive reasoning works as follows: think of a theory abouttopic and then narrow it down to specific hypothesis (hypothesis that we testor can test).

We have evidently here an induction and an hypothesis followed by a deduction; thus:

Sherman and Berk found, after conducting an experiment with the help of local police in one city, that arrest did in fact deter future incidents of violence, thus supporting their hypothesis that deterrence theory would better predict the effect of arrest. After conducting this research, they and other researchers went on to conduct similar experiments in six additional cities (Berk, Campbell, Klap, & Western, 1992; Pate & Hamilton, 1992; Sherman & Smith, 1992). Results from these follow-up studies were mixed. In some cases, arrest deterred future incidents of violence. In other cases, it did not. This left the researchers with new data that they needed to explain. The researchers therefore took an inductive approach in an effort to make sense of their latest empirical observations. The new studies revealed that arrest seemed to have a deterrent effect for those who were married and employed but that it led to increased offenses for those who were unmarried and unemployed. Researchers thus turned to control theory, which predicts that having some stake in conformity through the social ties provided by marriage and employment, as the better explanation.

Deductive, Inductive and Abductive Reasoning - TIP …

Deductive, Inductive and Abductive Reasoning ..

Researchers taking a take the steps described earlier for inductive research and reverse their order. They start with a social theory that they find compelling and then test its implications with data. That is, they move from a more general level to a more specific one. A deductive approach to research is the one that people typically associate with scientific investigation. The researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever phenomenon he or she is studying, and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories. outlines the steps involved with a deductive approach to research.

While not all researchers follow a deductive approach, as you have seen in the preceding discussion, many do, and there are a number of excellent recent examples of deductive research. We’ll take a look at a couple of those next.

The Difference Between Deductive and Inductive Arguments

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning ..

Can’t ever give us anything certain, only things that are likely to be the case.
-Hasty Generalizations
Most inductive reasoning is not based upon exhaustive evidence, and therefore the form is incomplete.

-Scientists do not work inductively, but use intuition ahead of facts to conjure a hypothesis.
-A hypothesis is always tested deductively, as it is taken for the moment as truth.
-Statements in science can never be verified because of the uncertainty in induction.

While inductive and deductive approaches to research seem quite different, they can actually be rather complementary. In some cases, researchers will plan for their research to include multiple components, one inductive and the other deductive. In other cases, a researcher might begin a study with the plan to only conduct either inductive or deductive research, but then he or she discovers along the way that the other approach is needed to help illuminate findings. Here is an example of each such case.

Inductive and deductive reasoning - Molwickpedia
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  • Inductive and Deductive Instruction - University of …

    In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches

  • Deductive Reasoning: Examples and Definition | …

    Deduction and Induction

  • Inductive and Deductive - SAGE Research Methods

    In logic, there are two distinct methods of reasoning namely the deductive and the inductive approaches

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Differences between deductive and inductive approaches …

He then used DEDUCTIVE REASONING to generate testable hypotheses and test his ideas.
One can
Circular reasoning
Given that a certain quadrilateral is a rectangle, and that all rectangles have equal diagonals, what can you deduce about the diagonals of this specific rectangle?

Differences between deductive and inductive approaches to research

What the Sherman and Berk research, along with the follow-up studies, shows us is that we might start with a deductive approach to research, but then, if confronted by new data that we must make sense of, we may move to an inductive approach. Russell Schutt depicts this process quite nicely in his text, and I’ve adapted his depiction here, in .

Deductive, Inductive and Hypothetico-deductive …

-This resulted in evolutionary divergence and the creation of new species, the basis of his 'Origin of Species'.

Realized Finches, a species of birds
varied across the Galapagos Islands
INDUCTIVE REASONING: He started with a specific piece of information and expanded it to a broad hypothesis.

2.3. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning | Open Agent …

In the case of my collaborative research on sexual harassment, we began the study knowing that we would like to take both a deductive and an inductive approach in our work. We therefore administered a quantitative survey, the responses to which we could analyze in order to test hypotheses, and also conducted qualitative interviews with a number of the survey participants. The survey data were well suited to a deductive approach; we could analyze those data to test hypotheses that were generated based on theories of harassment. The interview data were well suited to an inductive approach; we looked for patterns across the interviews and then tried to make sense of those patterns by theorizing about them.

Thesis: Deductive and Inductive Methods to Research

In another recent deductive study, Melissa Milkie and Catharine Warner (2011) studied the effects of different classroom environments on first graders’ mental health. Based on prior research and theory, Milkie and Warner hypothesized that negative classroom features, such as a lack of basic supplies and even heat, would be associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children. The researchers found support for their hypothesis, demonstrating that policymakers should probably be paying more attention to the mental health outcomes of children’s school experiences, just as they track academic outcomes (American Sociological Association, 2011).

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