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glucose stimulation of insulin synthesis that ..

questions concerning the processes of insulin synthesis and secretion were ..

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Insulin regulation of mitochondrial proteins and …

Hepatic stimulator substance (HSS), a partially purified extract of weanling or regenerating adult rat liver, is an organ-specific stimulator of liver growth in vivo and in vitro. The HTC hepatoma cell line is particularly responsive to HSS. The present experiments show that HSS will stimulate HTC cells in the complete absence of serum, although graded doses of fetal cal serum (FCS), from 0.1 to 5.0%, will increase the degree of stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, when HSS is absent, increasing doses of FCS above 0.5% inhibit DNA synthesis. Much of this inhibition is removed by prior dialysis of the FCS and maximum enhancement of the HSS-induced stimulation occurs with only 0.1-0.5% of the dialysed FCS. Sera from older animals have less or even negative effect. Evidence is presented to show that the enhanced stimulation by HSS in the presence of serum is not due to insulin, glucagon, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and that HSS does not act via a shared receptor for one of these hormones. These experiments provide further evidence that HSS is a unique stimulator of liver growth and lend support to a model of organ-specific growth control.

questions concerning the processes of insulin synthesis and secretion were not ..

For an arrogant person, you sure make yourself look childish, Lyle. Not a single argument against any of the data i have mentioned, only bashing of words.
Not only have you igonered me, you also ignored Moran Bentzur’s and the study he linked too, that did NOT just look at protein synthesis as you so swiftly concluded by reading the headline…

protein synthesis rates by insulin.

I don’t know of this DatBeTrue protocol, but i don’t think a carbless PWO protocol is silly. The fact of the matter is, there is no empirical data that shows us that carbs + protein is superior to protein only, for inducing a positive net protein balance (in muslce) post workout. But there is evidence to suggest that large doses of carbs lower muscle protein synthesis, and instead increases protein synthesis in the gut. Great, huh?

Dustin, please read my posts again to get a clearer picture of what i am talking about. Supra physiological doses of insulin is a whole other story, than what can be achieved by food or extremely high doses of carbs for that matter. I doubt Lyle will claim there is any use in spiking insulin higher than 30mU/L for the sake of better protein synthesis or lower protein breakdown.

Insulin Synthesis and Secretion

In conclusion, whilst it cannot be excluded that carbohydrate addition may provide benefits for recovering athletes, on the basis of available data, no further beneficial actions of carbohydrates, irrespective of GI, are evident concerning muscle hypertrophy when a protein supplement that maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis is ingested. Further studies are required before conclusions and recommendations can be made.

Coingestion of carbohydrate with protein does not further augment postexercise muscle protein synthesis
René Koopman,1 Milou Beelen,1 Trent Stellingwerff,1 Bart Pennings,1 Wim H. M. Saris,2 Arie K. Kies,3 Harm Kuipers,1 and Luc J. C. van Loon1,2

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  • insulin increases glycogen synthesis

    Insulin regulation of mitochondrial proteins and oxidative phosphorylation in ..

  • Mechanism of Muscle Growth Stimulation by Somatotropin …

    This is based on the hypothesis that insulin promotes protein synthesis, ..


    Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Stimulates Renal 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Synthesis in Old Rats ..

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that insulin is a potent stimulator of protein ..

While athletes are rarely that interested in technical details and only want the practical applications, to understand everything I want to talk about I need to look at a bit more detail, specifically how protein and carbohydrates interact with the processes of protein synthesis and breakdown discussed above. And it basically works out like this:

Insulin and glucagon are potent regulators of ..

AB - Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a widely expressed abundant autocrine and paracrine factor that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cell types. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a potent stimulator of IGF-I synthesis in bone. We examined the regulation of IGF-I synthesis by PGE2 in osteoblast-enriched (Ob) cells from fetal rat calvaria. PGE2 treatment of Ob cells at 1 μM for 2 h resulted in a 5-fold increase in heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels, as measured by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, suggesting an increase in IGF- I gene transcription. RNase protection analysis was used to map the transcriptional start sites in the IGF-I gene that are used in Ob cells. Consistent with other extrahepatic tissues, initiation of transcription occurs primarily at three sites within the 5'-regions of exon 1 of the IGF-I gene. PGE2 treatment did not alter start site usage. The regions upstream of these transcriptional start sites were analyzed by transiently transfecting Ob cells with putative rat IGF-I promoter sequences ligated to a luciferase reporter gene. Constructs containing 1.4 kilobases of the 5'-regions of exons 1 and 2 had significant promoter activity. PGE2 treatment of transfected Ob cells increased luciferase activity 5-fold when a 1.4-kilobase exon 1 promoter fragment was tested. This increase in luciferase activity was time and dose dependent. Smaller regions of the exon 1 promoter sequence gave higher basal activity and were less responsive to PGE2. We conclude that regions involved in IGF-I regulation by PGE2 are contained within the IGF-I promoter.

All of these actions reduce blood glucose

When elevated (and I’d note here that while carbohydrate has the primary effect on raising insulin, protein also raises insulin; as well, the combination of protein and carbohydrate raises insulin more than either alone), insulin pushes nutrients into cells. So insulin stimulates glycogen storage in the liver, it also enhances glycogen storage in skeletal muscle. And while insulin isn’t that critically involved in protein synthesis per se, it does decrease protein breakdown; as discussed in , this is important for maximal increases in muscle mass. So far so good.

Insulin Bio Synthesis | Insulin | Endoplasmic Reticulum

It’s actually a touch more complex than this. Protein can impact on protein breakdown under certain conditions and insulin can impact directly on protein synthesis (and there happens to be a big difference in terms of what happens at rest vs. after training). But for the most part, following training, the above will hold true.

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