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11. Effect of drugs on insulin release

Insulin also inhibits lipolysis and proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis.

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17/01/2018 · Insulin Synthesis and Secretion

Ikezu T, Okamoto T, Yonezawa K, TompkinsRG and Martyn JA: Analysis of thermal injury-induced insulinresistance in rodents. Implication of postreceptor mechanisms. JBiol Chem. 272:25289–25295. 1997. : :

- Research, development, production and safety of Biosynthetic Human Insulin.

Schematic diagram of burn-inducedinsulin resistance through the suppression of thephosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway mediated byinsulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) degradation. After burn injury,the blood concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,interleukin (IL) and lipopolysacchride (LPS) is significantlyincreased. TNF-α binds to its receptor and induces inducible nitricoxide synthase (iNOS) production. ILs, IL-6 in particular, bind tocorresponding receptors and promote the expression of suppressor ofcytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3). LPS binds to CD14 with the help ofthe LPS binding protein (LBP) and activates the intracellularsignaling pathway. All the cytokines induce IRS1 proteindegradation, which suppresses the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, andsubsequently suppresses glucose transporter (GLUT) translocationand glycogen synthesis, which results in burn-induced insulinresistance and hyperglycemia.

Insulin Synthesis - News Medical

- Research, Production and Safety of Biosynthetic Human Insulin, 1993.

Yang YM, Seo SY, Kim TH and Kim SG:Decrease of microRNA-122 causes hepatic insulin resistance byinducing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which is reversed bylicorice flavonoid. Hepatology. 56:2209–2220. 2012. : :

Evidence supporting inflammation as a possible link between brain and metabolic disorders comes from fat tissue–derived cytokines called adipokines. One such adipokine, leptin, has been found to be elevated in patients with depression, and postmortem studies of depressed patients who committed suicide revealed a downregulation of leptin receptors in the frontal cortex. On the metabolism side of the coin, obesity is classified as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation1 and is associated with abnormal levels of adipokines.2 (See “”) For example, mice with a mutation in the leptin or leptin receptor gene have demonstrated deficits in cell-mediated immunity, and are obese and diabetic. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which is a fundamental component in the innate immune system response, is implicated in mediating insulin and leptin resistance in the brain.

1. G.S. Hotamisligil, “Inflammation and metabolic disorders,” Nature, 444:860-67, 2006.

Insulin Bio Synthesis | Insulin | Endoplasmic Reticulum

9. Shulman GI. Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2000 Jul;106(2):171–6.

Insulin inhibits lipolysis in the adipocyte, inhibits proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis.

Insulin detemir is a soluble, long-acting basal human insulin analog with a relatively flat action profile.

Proinsulin is expressed like any other cellular protein and is transported to the endoplasmic reticulum where a segment of the protein is cleaved, generating the mature insulin protein and C-peptide fragment.

Uniquely, in its mature secreted form, insulin contains two separate polypeptide chains linked together by disulfide bonds.
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  • Effect of Insulin on Protein Synthesis | Diabetes

    Insulin is synthesized from a precursor, Proinsulin, which is a single, long polypeptide with internal disulfide bonds.

  • Inhibition of Insulin Synthesis by Cyproheptadine: …

    04/11/2012 · Insulin is synthesized in significant quantities only in beta cells in the pancreas.

  • Insulin's Mechanism of Action - MedBio

    Insulin Synthesis The discovery of insulin was one of the greatest events in medical history

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Insulin Synthesis, Secretion, and Regulation | drbeen

Sixty three nucleotides are required for synthesising the A chain and ninety for the B chain, plus a codon at the end of each chain,signalling the termination of protein synthesis.

Structure, synthesis, and maturation of an insulin molecule

A previous study using a rat model demonstrated thatno difference in insulin secretion was detected between the shamand burn groups; however, the sensitivity of insulin wassignificantly suppressed in the burn group (). Insulin resistance andhyperglycemia are crucial risk factors for increased mortality inpatients with severe burn injuries (). In another study on burnedchildren, it was demonstrated that insulin resistance can last upto 3 years (). Intensiveinsulin therapy is an efficient manner to control the blood glucoseof severely burned patients, as it can decrease the risk ofinfection and sepsis, improve hepatic and rental function, andsuppress acute inflammation ().

Recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis of human insulin

Glucose is one of the most important energy sourcesfor the human organism. It is usually stored in the liver andmuscle cells in the form of glycogen (). After eating, elevated bloodglucose is converted into glycogen (). During the conversion, bloodglucose is firstly transported into cells by the plasma membraneprotein glucose transporter (GLUT), and its four isoforms, GLUT1,GLUT2, GLUT3 and GLUT4, have been well-characterized (). GLUT4 is primarily expressed inmuscle and fat cells. The insulin signaling pathway plays animportant role in regulating its translocation (). Insulin binds to the IR andinduces the autophosphorylation of the receptor at tyrosineresidues (). Followingautophosphorylation, the receptor further recruits the IRS andpromotes its phosphorylation at tyrosine residues (). Phosphorylated IRS subsequentlybinds to the regulatory subunit, p85, of the phosphoinositide-3kinase (PI3K) and activates its catalytic subunit p110, which isresponsible for stimulating the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase(PDK) (). As the upstreamkinase of Akt, activated PDK promotes the phosphorylation of Akt atThr308 and Ser473 (), andphosphorylated Akt mediates the translocation of GLUT from thecytoplasm to the membrane ()(). Apart from its role inGLUT translocation, Akt has also been implicated in regulatingglycogen synthesis. Glycogen synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involvedin converting glucose into glycogen, and there are two isoforms inmammals, the muscle isoform ()and the liver isoform (). Bothisoforms are inactivated due to phosphorylation at the NH2- orCOOH-terminal residues mediated by glycogen synthesis kinase 3(GSK3) (). Insulindephosphorylates and restores the function of GS through Akt- orprotein kinase A-mediated phoshorylation and the inactivation ofGSK3 (,). In skeletal muscle, insulinenhances glycogen synthesis in the absence of GSK3 phosphorylation(). Glucose-6 phosphateinduces glycogen synthesis through the activation of GS in a cyclicAMP-stimulated protein kinase-dependent manner ().

Insulin Secretion - The Medical Biochemistry Page

Schematic diagram of the inolvementof hte insulin signaling pathway in the regulation of glucosetransport and glycogen synthesis. Insulin binds to itstransmembrane receptor, insulin receptor (IR), and promotes itsautophosphorylation at tyrosine residues (p-IR). Activated p-IRrecruits IR substrate (IRS) and enhances its activation bymediating its phosphorylation (p-IRS). p-IRS subsequently binds top85, the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K),and elevates the activation of its catalytic subunit p110, whichsubsequently activates phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK). Asthe upstream kinase of Akt, PDK promotes the phosphorylation of Akt(p-Akt) at Thr308 and Ser473. Activated Akt regulates glucosemetabolism in two pathways. One is promoting glucose transporterGLUT translocation from the cytoplasm to the membrane, whichmediates glucose uptake; another one is repressing the function ofglycogen synthesis kinase 3 (GSK3) by enhancing its phosphorylationat Ser9, and then enhancing the activation of GS and promotingglycogen synthesis.

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