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Books and Articles by Stephen D Krashen

The Affective Filter Hypothesis is one of five proposed hypotheses developed by Steven Krashen.

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Language Learning and Teaching: Krashen's Input Hypothesis

Subsequent critiques of Krashen have focused more on the pedagogical implications of his theories, for example his claim that comprehensible input is a sufficient condition for language acquisition. Critics, e.g., Swain (1985), counter that the production of language (output) is a necessary condition for language development.

Krashen (1982) explains that for optimal learning to occur the affective filter must be weak.

Clearly, an ESL student cannot cope with or learn from language input that is at i+6 or i+13. The input must be made comprehensible. Indeed, Krashen states that comprehensible input is a sufficient condition for language acquisition. However, Krashen further claims that no language will be acquired in the presence of the affective filter. This simply means that an ESL student who is nervous or bored in class will learn neither subject content nor new language, even if the input is comprehensible.

Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework …

The practical application of the Affective Filter Hypothesis is that teachers must provide a positive atmosphere conducive to language learning.

The 'learned system' or 'learning' is the product of formal instructionand it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge'about' the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules. Accordingto Krashen 'learning' is less important than 'acquisition'. .

According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second languageperformance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquiredsystem' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious processvery similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their firstlanguage. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - naturalcommunication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of theirutterances, but in the communicative act.

Krashen Monitor Hypothesis | Second Language …

Two small pieces of anecdotal data from Frankfurt International School in support of Krashen's theory of comprehensible input:

There are two ways of developing language ability: by acquisition and by learning. Acquisition is a sub-conscious process, as in the case of a child learning its own language or an adult 'picking up' a second language simply by living and working in a foreign country. Learning is the conscious process of developing a foreign language through language lessons and a focus on the grammatical features of that language.

According to Krashen learned language cannot be turned into acquisition. It is pointless spending a lot of time learning grammar rules, since this will not help us become better users of the language in authentic situations. At most, the knowledge we gain about the language will help us in direct tests of that knowledge or in situations when we have time to self-correct, as in the editing of a piece of writing.

Wikipedia article about Krashen. Its main focus on Krashen's involvement in the debate about bilingual education: .
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  • This page contains an introduction to the work of Stephen Krashen, ..

    (For additional information on thesestudies, see Truscott's seminal article (1996), Krashen (2004a) andLoewen (1998).

  • Krashen's 5 Hypotheses by Lisa Merlo Flores on Prezi

    Short description of Krashen's 5 main hypotheses on second language acquisition with comments in Portuguese.

  • Stephen Krashen - Books and Articles by Stephen D Krashen

    Learn about Stephen Krashen's acquisition-learning hypothesis as well as the major criticism of the hypothesis.

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Krashen's Five Hypotheses - YouTube

The important insight from Krashen's work is that neither competence nor performance is alone sufficient in the production of a good piece of writing. Extensive reading, regular writing practice and the acquisition of writing skills and strategies are all necessary to ensure a strong end product.

02/07/2015 · Krashen's Five Hypotheses Warren Duke

Krashen states further that practice, i.e., regular writing, correlates with creativity. It is wrong to believe that ideas and inspiration must precede writing; on the contrary, these often result from regular writing and the periods of incubation in between. When we write down ideas, the ideas become concrete. They are then more readily available for inspection and modification.

Krashen's five hypothesis - A brief review - Duration: 2:44

Krashen claims that writing competence, "the feel for what good writing looks like", arises through reading. Writing practice has no impact on competence. However, the quality of the learner's written end product, a school composition for example, can indeed be influenced by practice and the grammar/usage rules that the student has learned. Krashen devotes much attention to the writing strategies that have been found to be effective in improving writing quality. These include flexible planning, frequent revision, and postponement of editing.

Krashen’s Input Hypothesis and Comprehensible Input: [i …

Krashen's (1984) early work in this field draws the distinction between writing competence and writing performance. Competence is the largely sub-conscious, abstract knowledge of what constitutes good prose. Competence is acquired for the most part through reading. Performance, on the other hand, refers to the conscious application of strategies or rules that have been learned and practised. The distinction between competence and performance in writing parallels that between acquisition and learning in second language development.

Krashen’s theory has five-importance ..

Anecdotal confirmation of the hypothesis that we get smart by solving problems is provided by the webpage author's son. In the course of playing Pokemon games by himself and with his friends he built up an enormous amount of knowledge about the hundreds of Pokemon characters, their interrelationships, weapons, strength and weaknesses, and so on. Of course, a game is not a problem in the common sense of the word, but it falls within the scope of what Krashen means by problem-solving.

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