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Lead poisoning - Wikipedia

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Questions to test your understanding

If you look back at the table, there are several amino acids which are coded for by more than one base combination. For example, glycine (Gly) is coded for by GGT, GGC, GGA and GGG. It doesn't matter what the last base is - you would get glycine whatever base followed the initial GG.

Random changes to the genetic code

When certain dicarbonyl compounds are treated with base intramolecular Aldol reactions can occur. Similarly diesters can undergo intramolecular Claisen Condensations (this reactions is known as the Dieckmann cyclisation).

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the big fox bit the dog but not the boy

An extra "r" is inserted in "fox". If the sentence still has to be read three letters at a time (as in DNA), everything from then on becomes completely meaningless.

Colloidal nanocrystals of lead halide perovskites have recently received great attention due to their remarkable performance in optoelectronic applications (e.g., light-emitting devices, flexible electronics, and photodetectors). However, the use of lead remains of great concern due to its toxicity and bioaccumulation in the ecosystem; herein we report a strategy to address this issue by using tetravalent tin (Sn4+) instead of divalent lead (Pb2+) to synthesize stable Cs2SnI6 perovskite nanocrystals. The shapes of as-synthesized Cs2SnI6 nanocrystals are tuned from spherical quantum dots, nanorods, nanowires, and nanobelts to nanoplatelets via a facile hot-injection process using inexpensive and nontoxic commercial precursors. Spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM) and simulation studies revealed a well-defined face-centered-cubic (fcc) perovskite derivative structure of Cs2SnI6 nanocrystals. The solution-processed Cs2SnI6 nanocrystal-based field effect transistors (FETs) displayed a p-type semiconductor behavior with high hole mobility (>20 cm2/(V s)) and high I-ON/I-OFF ratio (>104) under ambient conditions. We envision that this work will pave the way to produce new families of high-performance, stable, low-cost and nontoxic nanocrystals for optoelectronic applications.

the big fox bit the pog but not the boy

If you insert a single extra base:

Lead(II) chloride can be made as a white precipitate by adding a solution containing chloride ions to lead(II) nitrate solution. You could use things like sodium chloride solution to provide the chloride ions, but it is usually easier just to add some hydrochloric acid.

If you add colourless potassium iodide solution (or any other source of iodide ions in solution) to a solution of lead(II) nitrate, a bright yellow precipitate of lead(II) iodide is produced.

the big fro xbi tth edo gbu tno tth ebo y
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    Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body

  • the big fox bit the xjy dog but not the boy

    The brain is the most sensitive

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Some diseases caused by mutation

If more sodium hydroxide solution is added, the precipitate redissolves to give a colourless solution which might be called sodium plumbate(II) solution - but could be called by a lot of alternative names depending on exactly how the formula is written!

Instead, the three bases lost are:

This page takes a very brief look at what happens if the code in DNA becomes changed in some way, and the effect that would have on the proteins it codes for. It is designed for 16 - 18 year old students. In fact, most chemistry students won't need this - check your syllabus and past papers before you go on.

Sickle cell anaemia (US: anemia)

Adding a source of aqueous sulphate ions to a solution of lead(II) nitrate results in a white precipitate of lead(II) sulphate. The easiest thing to add is usually dilute sulphuric acid - but any other soluble sulphate would do.

The affected part of the gene should read:

If this is the first set of questions you have done, please read the before you start. You will need to use the BACK BUTTON on your browser to come back here afterwards.

Questions to test your understanding

Copying errors when DNA replicates or is transcribed into RNA can cause changes in the sequence of bases which makes up the genetic code. Radiation and some chemicals can also cause changes. The examples which follow show some of the easier-to-understand effects of this.

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Remember that a set of three bases in a gene in DNA codes for a particular amino acid. If you have followed this sequence of pages from the beginning, you will have come across this table showing the codons in DNA:

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