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a. Site of lysosome production

Which organelle is responsible for providing the energy for the cell?2.

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which protein or lipid synthesis occurs

Moreau K, Dizin E, Ray H, et al: BRCA1affects lipid synthesis through its interaction with acetyl-CoAcarboxylase. J Biol Chem. 281:3172–3181. 2006. : :

43. Which pair of organelles is responsible for energy supply to eukaryotic cells?

THRSP, also known as Spot14, is a nuclear proteinthat activates lipogenic genes (). Low Spot14 expression was associatedwith prolonged survival in invasive breast cancers suggesting thatSpot14 may not be a key player in EMT (). Another study suggests that asbreast cancer cells do not express lipoprotein lipase, lipids mustbe provided by a local environment such as breast lipids explainingwhy cancer cells with low Spot14 levels cannot survive in a lowlipids concentration environment such as lymph nodes (). The authors even suggest thatelevated expression of Spot14 in cancer cells may provide a uniqueexplanation for the elevated lipid synthesis in cancer cells.

is a major site of lipid synthesis, ..

72. A protein molecule is to be exported from the cell. Describe the pathway that the protein takes from the point of synthesis to export.

The interference with mevalonate generation bystatins may also be an important regulatory mechanism underlyingthe action of BPs. BPs are widely used in the treatment of OP dueto their suppression of osteoclastic activity (). Considering that BPs and statinsaffect the same metabolic pathway, it has remained elusive why BPsexhibit only anti-resorptive effects, whereas statins inhibit boneloss but also stimulate bone formation. The difference insensitivity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to statins compared withthat to BPs may be one explanation for this discrepancy (). BPs are potent inhibitors of boneresorption, among the therapeutic options available for thetreatment of OP. They are synthetic compounds with a high affinityfor calcium-containing crystals, which selectively concentrate inthe bones by binding to hydroxyapatite crystals. BPs are absorbedonto the bone mineral surfaces and are released during phases ofbone remodeling. They interfere with the action of bone-resorbingosteoclasts, induce the apoptosis of these cells and reduce boneturnover, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. BPs areconsidered to be the current gold standard for treatment ofGC-induced OP (). A number oflarge-scale trials have shown that BPs increase BMD and decreasethe incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with GC-induced OP(–).

Kumar-Sinha C, Ignatoski KW, Lippman ME,Ethier SP and Chinnaiyan AM: Transcriptome analysis of HER2 revealsa molecular connection to fatty acid synthesis. Cancer Res.63:132–139. 2003.

occurs in which eukaryotic organelle?

All membranous eukaryotic cell organelles have the common feature of a phospholipid bilayer, although the proteins differ in each case.

Whilst the results of the studies by Broulik andTang (,) suggested that disorders of lipidmetabolism, specifically hyperlipidemia, negatively affect the bonestatus, Pharhami () demonstrated that a baseline level ofcholesterol synthesis is required for the osteoblasticdifferentiation of MSCs.

Lipogenesis is induced in cancer cells by EGFthrough activation of the HER2/neu receptor () and the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway(–) targeting SREBP-1 (,).As AMPK inhibits ACC by phosphorylation, its inactivationdiminishes lipid supply and blocks cell cycle decreasing celldivision and tumor growth ().Therefore, lipogenesis probably provides energy supply to cancercells stimulating cell division and survival leading to tumorgrowth.

The molecules that make up the cell: -50% protein -15% nucleic acid -15% carbohydrates -10% lipids -10% Other
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  • and is involved in lipid synthesis

    This review presents an overview of mammalian phospholipid synthesis and the cellular ..

  • Synthesis and Biosynthetic Trafficking of Membrane Lipids

    A highly folded membrane that is a site for protein and lipid synthesis, ..

  • Does anything else happen in the smooth ER besides lipid synthesis?

    enzymes from the ER to increase in situ lipid synthesis ..

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neutral lipid synthesis was inhibited by triacin C, ..

Solid tumors require high levels of energy forgrowth and membrane synthesis. Lipids provide this energy. Innormal tissues lipids come from circulating lipids, while cancercells mainly use synthesized lipids (). As a result, the rate of lipogenesisis highly induced ().

Lipid synthesis occurs in which eukaryotic ..

Lipogenesis occurs both in liver and adipose tissuesresulting in the synthesis of fatty acids fromacetyl CoA synthesized by glycolysis (). Acetyl CoA is then carboxylatedby ACC forming malonyl CoA. Malonyl CoA and acetyl CoA are furtherprocessed by fatty acid synthase (FAS) in palmitic acid, which isthen transformed by Elvol6 into stearic acid (). SCD1 catalyzes the formation ofpalmitoleoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA from palmitoyl-CoA andstearoyl-CoA, respectively (),which are preferentially transformed in triglycerides for storagein adipose tissue or phospholipids for membrane formation ().

Interactive Eukaryotic Cell Model - CELLS alive!

All cells share a number of common properties; they store information in genes made of DNA, they use proteins as their main structural material; they build proteins using the information encoded in the DNA; they use a chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the means of transferring energy for the cell's internal processes; and they are enclosed by a cell membrane, composed of proteins and a double layer of lipid (fat) molecules, that controls the flow of materials into and out of the cell.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

- Two types: smooth ER, rough ER. The smooth ER is continuous with the rough ER but has different functions. It is used in lipid synthesis, detoxification and other metabolic processes. The rough ER is used in protein synthesis.

Human Physiology - Cell structure and function - EKU

-Acts as a transport station, packaging materials (such as proteins from the ER) into vesicles and sending them off either to other organelles or for excretion (removal) from the cell. Also: The Golgi receives proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These are ferried to the Golgi by transfer vesicles. The proteins are then processed by the Golgi for export, membrane use or for inclusion in lysosomes.

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