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hypothesis, that macromolecular …

The Macromolecular Hypothesis.

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working hypothesis, that macromolecular lignin replication ..

Currently there is no single ’origin of life’ theory, but several contradictory hypotheses. We do not even know exactly when life started. Possible outline is likely to be following: First prebiotic chemistry produces building blocks of life and then, at the presence of suitable energy source, these monomers build up self-replicating RNA-chains and other biological macromolecules. Finally first living cells are formed from the biomolecules. Still, different hypothesis do not agree of the order or in what conditions these steps happened and structures developed.

time—when he demonstrated his macromolecular hypothesis.

A macromolecular prodrug (P-Dex) of dexamethasone (Dex) was developed to improve the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonic inflammation was induced by feeding mice with dextran sulfate sodium. Mice were treated with daily i.p. injection of free Dex or single i.v. injection of P-Dex, PBS or free polymer. Both P-Dex and free Dex could lower disease activity index and histology scores when compared to the controls. A single injection of P-Dex with 1/4 equivalent Dex dose had a better therapeutic effect than daily free Dex treatment. Mechanism study found that P-Dex could target the inflamed colon, and be retained by epithelial cells and local inflammatory infiltrates, suggesting that the improved efficacy of P-Dex may be attributed to its inflammation targeting, subcellular processing and activation. Collectively, these data support our hypothesis that the development of macromolecular prodrug of glucocorticoid may have the potential to improve the clinical management of IBD.

What Causes Aging? Damage-Based Theories of Aging

Evolution of the first genetic cells and the universal genetic code: A hypothesis based on macromolecular coevolution of RNA and proteins

AB - A macromolecular prodrug (P-Dex) of dexamethasone (Dex) was developed to improve the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonic inflammation was induced by feeding mice with dextran sulfate sodium. Mice were treated with daily i.p. injection of free Dex or single i.v. injection of P-Dex, PBS or free polymer. Both P-Dex and free Dex could lower disease activity index and histology scores when compared to the controls. A single injection of P-Dex with 1/4 equivalent Dex dose had a better therapeutic effect than daily free Dex treatment. Mechanism study found that P-Dex could target the inflamed colon, and be retained by epithelial cells and local inflammatory infiltrates, suggesting that the improved efficacy of P-Dex may be attributed to its inflammation targeting, subcellular processing and activation. Collectively, these data support our hypothesis that the development of macromolecular prodrug of glucocorticoid may have the potential to improve the clinical management of IBD.

N2 - A macromolecular prodrug (P-Dex) of dexamethasone (Dex) was developed to improve the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonic inflammation was induced by feeding mice with dextran sulfate sodium. Mice were treated with daily i.p. injection of free Dex or single i.v. injection of P-Dex, PBS or free polymer. Both P-Dex and free Dex could lower disease activity index and histology scores when compared to the controls. A single injection of P-Dex with 1/4 equivalent Dex dose had a better therapeutic effect than daily free Dex treatment. Mechanism study found that P-Dex could target the inflamed colon, and be retained by epithelial cells and local inflammatory infiltrates, suggesting that the improved efficacy of P-Dex may be attributed to its inflammation targeting, subcellular processing and activation. Collectively, these data support our hypothesis that the development of macromolecular prodrug of glucocorticoid may have the potential to improve the clinical management of IBD.

Intelligent races who are not EARTH HUMANS

A Sco protein among the hypothetical proteins of Bacillus lehensis G1: Its 3D macromolecular structure and association with Cyto

The ramifications of a simple working hypothesis, that macromolecular lignin replication might occur directly through a template polymerization mechanism, are explored in detail.

The HIVE Center characterizes assemblies of HIV and host molecules in multiple states and their transitions, by combining structural studies of HIV protein interactions with chemical and evolutionary probes and computational modeling to elucidate macromolecular interactions and mechanisms critical for the viral life cycle. Previous work by Center structural biologists have characterized all of the HIV enzymes, with over 300 unique structure depositions in the PDB, and the work within HIVE will reveal their interaction and maturation from viral polyproteins, and their interactions within the viral lifecycle. HIVE laboratories are approaching this challenge with a variety of experimental methods. The evolution of HIV under the selection pressure of small molecule effectors provides a functional window on the underlying macromolecular interactions. Chemistry gives us the capability to design and refine new atomic level probes to explore mechanism. Computational modeling guides the establishment of structural hypotheses and enables the integration of multi-scale dynamic data into a coherent physical picture.

23.01.2003 · The experiments that we present below examine the macromolecular complex hypothesis for NCX1
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  • Origin of Life Theories: Metabolism First vs

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Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States

T1 - Comment on "a theory of macromolecular chemotaxis" and "phenomena associated with gel-water interfaces. Analyses and alternatives to the long-range ordered water hypothesis"

Macromolecular lignin replication: A mechanistic …

At the time of the first realization that the last step in lignin biosynthesis involves lignol radical coupling, it was difficult to envisage how such a process could be regiospecifically controlled. It was thus natural to expect that lignin macromolecules should have random primary structures. This has now been the prevailing assumption for almost fifty years, but of its correctness there has been no clear proof. Rather there have been occasional but insistent indications that lignins cannot just be products of random monolignol dehydropolymerization. Thus the present article seeks to apprehend the mechanistic implications of a situation where lignin primary structure would be determined by the sequence of interunit linkages along each biopolymer chain. The ramifications of a simple working hypothesis, that macromolecular lignin replication might occur directly through a template polymerization mechanism, are explored in detail. The manner in which the fidelity of the process could be maintained, through specific π-orbital interactions between the lignol radical precursors and characteristic substructures in the pre-existing lignin macromolecules, is explicitly described. The consequences of template polymerization are shown to be consistent with the absence of both optical activity and crystallinity in macromolecular lignin domains. It is proposed that the inherent primary structures of lignins are encoded in contiguous 'dirigent' arrays of lignol radical coupling sites distributed along individual polypeptide chains within lignifying plant cell walls.

Macromolecular lignin replication : A mechanistic ..

N2 - At the time of the first realization that the last step in lignin biosynthesis involves lignol radical coupling, it was difficult to envisage how such a process could be regiospecifically controlled. It was thus natural to expect that lignin macromolecules should have random primary structures. This has now been the prevailing assumption for almost fifty years, but of its correctness there has been no clear proof. Rather there have been occasional but insistent indications that lignins cannot just be products of random monolignol dehydropolymerization. Thus the present article seeks to apprehend the mechanistic implications of a situation where lignin primary structure would be determined by the sequence of interunit linkages along each biopolymer chain. The ramifications of a simple working hypothesis, that macromolecular lignin replication might occur directly through a template polymerization mechanism, are explored in detail. The manner in which the fidelity of the process could be maintained, through specific π-orbital interactions between the lignol radical precursors and characteristic substructures in the pre-existing lignin macromolecules, is explicitly described. The consequences of template polymerization are shown to be consistent with the absence of both optical activity and crystallinity in macromolecular lignin domains. It is proposed that the inherent primary structures of lignins are encoded in contiguous 'dirigent' arrays of lignol radical coupling sites distributed along individual polypeptide chains within lignifying plant cell walls.

Macromolecular lignin replication: A mechanistic ..

AB - At the time of the first realization that the last step in lignin biosynthesis involves lignol radical coupling, it was difficult to envisage how such a process could be regiospecifically controlled. It was thus natural to expect that lignin macromolecules should have random primary structures. This has now been the prevailing assumption for almost fifty years, but of its correctness there has been no clear proof. Rather there have been occasional but insistent indications that lignins cannot just be products of random monolignol dehydropolymerization. Thus the present article seeks to apprehend the mechanistic implications of a situation where lignin primary structure would be determined by the sequence of interunit linkages along each biopolymer chain. The ramifications of a simple working hypothesis, that macromolecular lignin replication might occur directly through a template polymerization mechanism, are explored in detail. The manner in which the fidelity of the process could be maintained, through specific π-orbital interactions between the lignol radical precursors and characteristic substructures in the pre-existing lignin macromolecules, is explicitly described. The consequences of template polymerization are shown to be consistent with the absence of both optical activity and crystallinity in macromolecular lignin domains. It is proposed that the inherent primary structures of lignins are encoded in contiguous 'dirigent' arrays of lignol radical coupling sites distributed along individual polypeptide chains within lignifying plant cell walls.

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