Pemoline is a stimulant drug of the 4-oxazolidinone class
In September 2011, the DEA scheduled three synthetic cathinones as schedule one (mephedrone, methylone, and MDPV)
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Synthetic cathinones are related to the parent compound cathinone (Figure 1), one of the psychoactive principals in ( Forsk). Cathinone derivatives are the β-keto (βk) analogues of a corresponding . The group includes several substances that have been used as of medicinal products, e.g. amfepramone (diethylpropion; Figure 2). Since the mid-2000s, unregulated ring-substituted cathinone derivatives have appeared in the European recreational drugs market. The most commonly available cathinones sold on the recreational market in the period up to 2010 appear to be mephedrone (Figure 3) and methylone (Figure 4). These products are usually encountered as highly pure white or brown powders. Ring-substituted cathinone derivatives are claimed to have effects similar to those of , or (ecstasy), but little is known of their detailed pharmacology. Apart from cathinone (Figure 1), methcathinone (Figure 5) and two ’s amfepramone (Figure 2) and pyrovalerone, cathinone derivatives are not under international control.
Although not controlled in many countries, synthetic cathinones are regularly submitted to forensic laboratories by police and customs for identification. The number of such submissions increased rapidly during the second half of 2009. Methylone was one of the first ring-substituted synthetic cathinones to be reported in the EU (Netherlands, Sweden, 2005), but mephedrone has become the most commonly seen derivative. Information on seizures and samples from the Netherlands indicate that tablets sold as ecstasy, but actually containing mephedrone (sometimes in combination with ), appeared on the market for the first time in 2009. However, the absence of systematic data makes it difficult to comment with confidence on the availability of different cathinone products, although reports do suggest that availability varies over time and place.
Tablet Name/Logo: Field Test Reaction
The ring-substituted -methylcathinone derivatives are best synthesised by reacting the suitably substituted bromopropiophenone with methylamine; the result is always . In the case of methylone, for example, 2-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxy-propiophenone can be prepared by reacting 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone with bromine. These precursor substances are readily available and none of them is under international control. Other methods are required to produce the derivatives, but apart from MDPV, substances such as PPP, MPHP, MOPPP and MDPPP, which briefly appeared in Germany in 2004 (see Table 1), have since been rarely observed.
Simple derivatives such as methcathinone and -dimethylcathinone can be synthesised by oxidation of ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) and-methylephedrine (or -methylpseudoephedrine) respectively. This requires reacting the precursor with a solution of potassium permanganate in dilute sulfuric acid. The precursors can be obtained as specific enantiomers, thereby ensuring that the synthesis is stereoselective. Cathinone itself can be made in a similar way, starting from phenylpropanolamine (norephedrine). One of the hazards of the permanganate process is that users can suffer manganese poisoning if the product is not purified.
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