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How the brain got language: The Mirror System Hypothesis.

Arbib Précis of How the brain got language: The Mirror System Hypothesis Michael A.

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How the Brain Got Language: The Mirror System Hypothesis

This chapter provides an introduction to mirror neurons and mirror systems. It discusses modeling how mirror neurons learn and function; mirror systems in the human; and the adaptive value of mirror neuron activity. It shows that mirror neurons may play a crucial role both in self-action and in understanding the action of others. However, mirror neurons do not provide understanding in and of themselves but only as part of a larger system “beyond the mirror.” They enrich that understanding by connecting it with the motor system, going beyond mere perceptual classification, providing means to short circuit analysis of the action of others in cases where they can be integrated into the subject's own motor experience.

11/04/2012 · How the Brain Got Language The Mirror System Hypothesis Michael A

As illustrated in Figure 1, as arousal and stress increase, dominance shifts to more primitive areas of the brain. The limbic and reptilian brains have limited functions fo-cused primarily on survival. The stress-brain area dominance relationship impacts all domains of life, as the organization of the brain to facilitate survival draws upon all systems (40). Which brain area is dominant does not determine the precise symptom but rather the extent of deviation from homeostatic states associated with health and well-being. For example, an individual in brain state 4 may have one of various symptoms of emotional stress such as hostility, mania, depression or anxiety.

New Hypothesis of ASD: Study from Mirror System | …

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After a long delay due to the Challenger disaster in 1986, the Hubble Space Telescope shot into orbit on April 24, 1990, piggybacking aboard the Discovery space shuttle. Since its launch, Hubble has reshaped our v­iew of space, with scientists writing thousands of papers based on the telescope’s clear-eyed findings on important stuff like the age of the universe, gigantic ­black holes or what­ stars look like in the throes of death.

The gestures that co-occur with speech are sometimes referred to as gesticulations in order to distinguish them from pantomimes and conventional gestures. Two decades of research by David McNeill and colleagues have demonstrated that gesticulation is an integral part of speaking (e.g. ; ). McNeill argues that co-speech gestures synthesize several elements of a thought simultaneously, while speech (and sign) express these elements separately and categorically in morphemes, words, phrases, etc. Similarly, he argues that gestures express meanings globally, i.e. the handshape, movement, or location of a gesture gain meaning only as parts of a whole; in contrast, for speech (and sign) meaning is segmented and combined into hierarchical structures. Gestures and speech are bound together in a tight link and are not easily separated – for example, gestures that occur with stuttered speech do not compensate for the reduced content of speech and the onset of stuttering immediately stops a gesture ().

04/01/2018 · New Hypothesis of AS..

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Unlike any other species, humans can learn and use language. This book explains how the brain evolved to make language possible, through what the text calls the Mirror System Hypothesis. Because of mirror neurons, monkeys, chimps, and humans can learn by imitation, but only “complex imitation,” which humans exhibit, is powerful enough to support the breakthrough to language. This theory provides a path from the openness of manual gesture, which we share with nonhuman primates, through the complex imitation of manual skills, pantomime, protosign (communication based on conventionalized manual gestures), and finally to protospeech. The theory explains why we humans are as capable of learning sign languages as we are of learning to speak. This book shows how cultural evolution took over from biological evolution for the transition from protolanguage to fully fledged languages. The book explains how the brain mechanisms that made the original emergence of languages possible, perhaps 100,000 years ago, are still operative today in the way children acquire language, in the way that new sign languages have emerged in recent decades, and in the historical processes of language change on a time scale from decades to centuries.

Another puzzle is that signers also gesture simultaneously while signing (; ). As found for speakers, pantomimes and conventional gestures are not produced simultaneously with signs and are produced as components of an utterance (). Also like speakers, signers produce synthetic and global gesticulations, but with their mouths and their bodies while signing with their hands. For example, a signer may produce a swaying gesture with his or her body, while producing the sign TO-DANCE; the body gesture conveys the waltz-like manner of the dance (). presents an elegant analysis of co-sign gestures produced by the mouth, for example, puffed cheeks conveying the round shape of a ball produced simultaneously with the manual sign BOWLING-BALL. She presents evidence that such mouth gestures are global, synthetic, idiosyncratic, and noncombinatoric, and she concludes “speakers gesture with their hands, signers gesture with their mouths (2009: 241).” Why should signers produce these types of co-sign gestures at all? One possibility suggested by Sandler is that all human language users express thought through an integrated system that combines codified, combinatorial meaning structures (expressed in language, either spoken or signed) and global, synthetic, imagistic schemas (expressed in gesticulation with the hands, face, or body). The puzzle for Arbib’s account is how and why protosign evolved into gesticulation and why modern signers produce signs and gesticulations in the same modality.

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  • based on the Mirror System Hypothesis.

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    Précis of How the Brain Got Language: The Mi rror System Hypothesis

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the mirror system hypothesis: from a macaque - …

If the mirror system is key to the evolution and emergence of language in humans, it is puzzling that the mirror system plays such a small role in language processing for both auditory-vocal and visual-manual languages. Although Arbib does not claim that the mirror system alone can support language, he argues that mirror neurons serve as part of the neural circuitry that mediates understanding (2012: 139) and that there are mirror neuron populations for words and signs that encode articulatory form and that these neurons fire when a specific word is heard or uttered (or a sign is either seen or articulated) (2012: 281). Arbib states that the basic idea of the Mirror System Hypothesis for the evolution of language is that “the mechanisms that get us to the role of Broca’s area in language depend in a crucial way on the mechanisms established to support a mirror system for grasping (2012: 174).” The conundrum is that Broca’s area does not exhibit properties associated with a mirror system for either speech or sign, that is, a system that matches action observation (i.e. perceiving speech or sign) and execution (articulation) of speech or sign.

Grounding the mirror system hypothesis for the …

Mirror neurons, originally described in the monkey premotor area F5, are embedded in a frontoparietal network for action execution and observation. A similar Mirror Neuron System (MNS) exists in humans, including precentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal sulcus. Controversial is the inclusion of Broca's area, as homologous to F5, a relevant issue in light of the mirror hypothesis of language evolution, which postulates a key role of Broca's area in action/speech perception/production. We assess "mirror" properties of this area by combining neuroimaging and intraoperative neurophysiological techniques. Our results show that Broca's area is minimally involved in action observation and has no motor output on hand or phonoarticulatory muscles, challenging its inclusion in the MNS. The presence of these functions in premotor BA6 makes this area the likely homologue of F5 suggesting that the MNS may be involved in the representation of articulatory rather than semantic components of speech. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1010-1027, 2015.

Mirror Neuron Hypothesis of Autism - VidInfo

Michael Arbib proposes that the brain got language via the mirror neuron system – hence the title of his book. In particular, he proposes that a mirror system for grasping (a system that matches action observation and execution for grasping actions) evolved into a mirror system that is not tied to praxic actions, but rather relates to actions of speaking (or signing). In addition, Arbib proposes that pantomime preceded protosign, which then provided the scaffolding for protospeech, and an “expanding spiral” between the two led to multimodal protolanguage. I would like to raise two puzzles for this account of the evolution of language: 1) a mirror system for the actions of speaking or signing is not critical for either spoken or signed language processing (; ; ), and 2) pantomimes and modern protosigns (i.e. conventional, more arbitrary gestures) do not co-occur with speech (, ), but gesture (gesticulation) co-occurs with both speech and sign (; ).

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