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Metabolism Nitrates and nitrites N-nitroso compounds

The most widely used feature of the chemistry of diazomethane is the methylation of

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Formation of N-nitroso compounds in vitro

However, this information is not sufficient to relate environmental concentrations to actual intake of nitrates or nitrites in cases of observed methaemoglobinaemia.


Early alterations in plasma esterases with associated pathology following oral administration of diethylnitrosamine and butylated hydroxytoluene singly or in combination, Int.

Thus carboxylic acids will be methylated under these conditions.

Analytical methods Nitrates and nitrites  N-nitroso compounds

(1967) A comparative study of the action of ethyl methane sulphonate and HNO2 on the mutation to streptomycin resistance of Escherichia coil K 12.

US DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE (1970) Nitrates, nitrites and methaemoglobinaemia, Research Triangle Park, N.C., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, pp.

Reduction of nitrates to nitrites

Experimental studies in animals Nitrates and nitrites  N-nitroso compounds

(1971) morpholine lung (adenoma) lung (adenoma) N-methylaniline lung (adenoma) lung (adenoma) morpholine lung (adenoma) lung (adenoma) Table 4 (Cont'd) sodium nitrite + amine Expected tumour Reference oral administration Observed tumour site for amino compounds site corresponding N-nitroso compound N-methylbenzylamine oesophagus oesophagus Sander (1971a) forestomach forestomach piperazine lung (adenoma) lung (adenoma) Greenblatt & Mirvish (1972) N-methylurea lung (adenoma) lung (adenoma) Mirvish et al.

(1973b) N-ethylurea lung (adenoma) lung (adenoma) a Adapted from Preussmann (1975) Dose-response relationship for combinations of nitrite and amines Greenblatt & Mirvish (1972) conducted a study in which groups of 40, male, strain A mice, given 0.69-18.75 g of piperazine per kg of food and 0.05-2.0 g of sodium nitrite per litre of drinking water for 20-25 weeks, were killed 10-13 weeks later.

Epidemiological studies Nitrates and nitrites  N-nitroso compounds
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  • Formation of N-nitroso compounds from drugs and pesticides

    The methylation reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is highly reliable and very selective for carboxylic acids.

  • Formation of N-nitroso compounds in animal organisms

    Selective monomethylation of

  • Formation of N-nitroso compounds in simulated gastric juice

    These species then attack the diazonium ion at competitive rates to provide the methyl ether and ester.

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Formation of N-nitroso compounds in vivo

In England, nitrate concentrations in some ground waters have been reported to range from 12 mg/litre (Foster & Crease, 1974) to over 22 mg/litre (Reeves et al., 1974).

Formation of N-nitroso compounds by microorganisms

5.1.3 Selected foods According to the data compiled by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS, 1970), the levels of nitrates in vegetables vary considerably.

Occupational exposure to N-nitroso compounds

According to Gruenar & Shuval (1970), about 180 wells for community water supplies in the densely populated central and southern coastal plain in Israel had nitrate concentrations exceeding 45 mg/litre.


It is of interest to note that the nitrate levels in vegetables reported by Jackson in 1967 were similar to those reported by Richardson in 1907, when manure was used instead of chemical fertilizers.


The mean nitrate concentration in ground water consumed by children affected by methaemoglobinaemia in Czechoslovakia ranged from 18-257 mg/litre (Schmidt & Knotek, 1970).

Evidence for a competitive nature to miscoding by O6 methylguanine.

Initiating potential of 2-(2-furyl)- 3-(5-nitro-2- furyl)acrylamide (AF-2), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin) in two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis.

Factors involved in susceptibility to nitrates

Effect of micronutrients, antioxidants and related compounds on the mutagenicity of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl, a colon and breast carcinogen Food Chem.

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