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Criteria to identify neurotransmitters are shown in the Table 2.1.

There are two main groups of neurotransmitters:

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Neurotransmitters are stored in synaptic vesicles.

There is some evidence that antibiotics, especially the quinolones, e.g. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) can complicate withdrawal. A considerable number of people withdrawing from benzodiazepines have reported quite serious adverse reactions and side-effects after using this class of drugs. There are similar reports from people who are still taking the drug as well as those who are suffering from the post-withdrawal syndrome. The fact that these antibiotics affect the central nervous system (CNS) certainly accounts for this phenomenon. People suffering from benzodiazepine withdrawal (including tolerance withdrawal) also have a tendency to suffer from a weakened immune system. Some people have actually refused to take antibiotics for pneumonia, which is inadvisable and potentially fatal. However, antibiotics should only be taken by the benzodiazepine patient when they are critical to his/her overall health. The use of older antibiotics which do not affect the CNS is always advised.

Indolamines (serotonin and tryptamine) are synthesized from tryptophan (Figure 2.3.).

There are no clearly definitive equivalencies for various benzodiazepines. This author has personally seen at least a dozen different benzodiazepine equivalency charts and no two are alike. The table below has been chosen because it reflects the clinical experience of in having helped over 300 people to withdraw from benzodiazepines by use of a Valium substitution method (see below).

From the psychiatry point of view neurotrophins are most important.

In almost all cases these improvements are done without neurotransmitter level testing.

Opiates include Opium itself, which is the resin obtained from the seed pod of the opium poppy, along with Morphine, Heroin and Codeine. These can all be produced from raw opium by fairly simple chemical processing. Synthetic analgesics are manufactured as powders, tablets or liquids. They include Methadone (usually as a syrup), Physeptone (a methadone tablet), Pethidine, Diconal and Palfium.

Analgesics are substances that provides relief from pain. Mild analgesics, such as the many brand-named preparations of aspirin or paracetemol, are relatively harmless. Analgesic drugs of abuse are far stronger than this and are all powerful pain killers. Some are refined from an extract obtained from opium poppies (Papaver somniferum) and are classed as "opiates" and some are produced by chemical synthesis.

(2.3) How are neurotransmitters synthesised, degraded and stored

There are no routine blood tests to check neurotransmitter levels in the blood.

There may be secondary effects as well. Different benzodiazepines exhibit these primary effects to varying degrees. For example, diazepam (Valium) is a relatively powerful hypnotic (sleep inducer), whereas the more modern benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin) are less powerful hypnotics, but are very powerful anxiolytics. Do not assume that because one benzodiazepine makes you sleepier than another that this benzodiazepine is more potent than those which do not produce sleepiness to the same degree. Often, the reverse is true.

One mechanism which might be involved in long-term (and possibly permanent) effects of benzodiazepines is an alteration in the activity of benzodiazepine receptors in brain GABA neurones. These receptors down-regulate (become fewer) as tolerance to benzodiazepines develop with chronic use. Such down-regulation is a homeostatic response of the body to the constant presence of the drugs. Since benzodiazepines themselves enhance the actions of GABA, extra benzodiazepine receptors are no longer needed, so many are, in effect, discarded. These down-regulated receptors are absorbed into neurones where, over time, they undergo various changes including alterations in gene expression. When these receptors are slowly reinstated after drug withdrawal, they may return in a slightly altered form. They may not be quite so efficient as before in increasing the actions of GABA, the natural 'calming' neurotransmitter. As a result, the brain may be generally less sensitive to GABA and the individual is left with heightened central nervous system excitability and increased sensitivity to stress. Molecular biologists point out that changes in gene expression can be very slow, or even unable, to reverse. (The action of benzodiazepines at GABA receptors is explained more fully in ).

Some people who promote these kinds of tests are likely to monetarily profit from the testing.
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  • Large neurotransmitters are synthesized in the: a

    GABA and glycine are inhibitory neurotransmitters; glutamate and aspartate are excitatory neurotransmitters.

  • Where are neurotransmitters synthesised

    ___are synthesised from amino acid molecules

  • Most neurotransmitters are derived / synthesised from ..

    Neurotransmitters are chemicals synthesised by a neuron from blood, and released by a neuron to transmit a …

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How are peptide neurotransmitters synthesised

Use of proper levels of cofactors and sulfur amino acids is required for optimal results
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3 150/1500 150/1500 300/1500 300/1500

The generic protocol developed for treatment of neurotransmitter dysfunction disease relating to the catecholamine system and/or serotonin system involves the use of tyrosine, 5-HTP, and cofactors.

Zinc regulates the storage and release of neurotransmitters

Barbiturates work by enhancing the action of a brain neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger) that is in charge of inhibiting parts of the brain sometimes. For example, when we go to sleep, some areas of the brain are inhibited, as they are not needed. As barbiturates facilitates the activity of one of the main inhibiting neurotransmitters (Gamma ammino butyric acid - GABA), they have an impact on many aspects of the body including mood, locomotion, co-ordination and even breathing.

In the terminal neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles

Of concern is laboratory companies out there that are promoting neurotransmitter testing trying to test basic neurotransmitter science that is not supported by the literature and these peer reviewed articles.

How are different neurotransmitters within a single …

The cross-over process also needs to be carried out gradually, usually in stepwise fashion, substituting one dose at a time. Many people have suffered because they have been switched too quickly. Making the changeover one dose (or part of dose) at a time avoids this difficulty. Depending on the size of your dose, the period of dose substitution may be anywhere from 3 weeks to about 3 months.

How are different neurotransmitters within a single ..

Unlike many other drugs of abuse, barbiturates are rarely produced in clandestine laboratories. Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market through forged prescriptions etc., although many barbiturates are also illegally imported from foreign manufacturers.

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