(the ‘North Galatian hypothesis’
south or north galatia)
5.1.1 North Galatia Hypothesis; 5.1.2 South ..
Reuben inherited part of Israel adjoining the Euphrates River. Descendants of Reuben were referred to as "Rabeans" in the Mari correspondence from northern Syria. Reuben was also recalled in Northeast "Syria", in the Geography of Ptolemy (based on Ancient Sources) as the Rahabbanai. After being exiled a portion of the tribe of Reuben was recorded as the Rhabbanai in East Scythia, and later as the Ribuari (Franks) in Gaul. "Ribuari" means Reubeni. They were also known as the Rubi.
CLANS OF REUBEN: Chanoch (Hanoch) became the Chauci, who were also known as the Hugo in both Scythia and the west. They became part of the Franks and Saxons. Palui (Phalu) is recalled in the region of Falia (Phalia in Germany) whence the Franks invaded Gaul. Chetsroni (Hezron) became the Chassuari and Istaevones (Sicambri). These peoples all were part of the Franks, who gave their name to France. Carmi: after being exiled was recalled in Carmania in southern Iran, in the Crimea of Scythia, and in the Carini Franks in Gaul. Gog (a clan of Reuben, 1-Chronicles 5:4) gave his name to Gogarene (a region of Iberia in the Caucasus), in the Land of Gog in Scythia north of Tibet, and in the name of the Goths and of the Lost Ten Tribes in popular traditions. Gog was also the name given to the head of a non-Israelite people (Ezekiel 38:2), so some confusion results.
A symbol of the Gauls was a cock and later France was represented by the sun. This is also a symbol of Reuben. The fleur-de-lis symbol of France is similar to the flower of the mandrake another symbol of Reuben.
The exiled Israelites became Scythians or at least part of the Scythians were Israelite and these in turn invaded Western Europe as "Barbarians". One of the major Barbarian confederacies was that of the Franks. The Franks were an alliance of several groups or rather a federation of several smaller combinations of tribes classified as Frankish and sharing some type of commonality. They seem to have been first reported about 256 c.e.1 when a group of them invaded Gaul, then passed into Spain and from there went to North Africa. Other Frankish-groups soon emerged from the northern Rhine region and began to expand in influence until they succeeded in subjugating the whole of Gaul that was then later called "France" in their honor, i.e. Land of the Franks. A song2 in Gaul dated from about 350 c.e. or earlier equated the Franks with the Persians and Sarmatians. Persians and Sarmatians had indeed neighbored the Scythians in Scythia. Other reports (such as that of Nicholas Vignier ca. 1630)3 also said that the Franks were originally Scyths or Sarmatians. The Franks appear to have gone at first to the mouth of the Rhine and from there began to move southwards. Old accounts4 say that the Franks had come from the former Saxon area of Maurunganie in North Germany below the place of the Normans. One version ("Geography of Ravenna", ca. 700's c.e.). states that the Franks had been in southern Denmark. Another source describes the Franks as, "A people whose name of old was the Deni [i.e. Danes]. The Frankish people is sprung from them, so the legend relates" (Ermoldus Nigellus 826)5. This suggests that a part of the early Frankish leadership may once have been in Scandinavia.
Other very strong and consistent traditions6 connected the Franks (who were also called Frakkar and "Frygges") with Phrygia in the western portion of present day Turkey, with Troy (near Phrygia in Anatolia), and with Pannonia. Pannonia, in Roman times, referred to the area of Hungary but later usage7 applied the term to an extended area including the north and west. Whatever areas of temporary sojourn the Frankish peoples may have been in, their primary source of origin is to be sought in Scythia east of the Caspian. The Franks are traceable to the Hugie of the Scythian steppes and the Tectosaces and company who were there. The Vistula River-Pannonia path was one of the major routes into Europe from the steppe area and that was probably the route (or one of the routes) the Franks followed. The Franks were destined to conquer Celtic peoples including Galatians and settle in France. The Celts were then concentrated in Gaul (France) and Britain but had once been spread throughout much of Europe. Even before conquering Gaul the Franks had a proven ability to absorb other peoples, especially those of Celtic connection. The Franks moved from east to west and it is thus possible that on their way west they gathered in pockets of Cimmerians and Galatians known to have formerly been scattered in the southeast European area. There were early French historians who tried to find an ancestral connection between Franks and Galatians. The Franks eventually conquered Gaul the northern part of which was populated by the Galatians and some French writers said that the Franks were themselves mainly of Galatian origin. The Galatians or Galati were also known as Galadi and in French this is a form of the Hebrew name "Gilead". The Tribe of Reuben had originally settled east of the Jordan in the land of Gilead (Joshua 22;9).
The Franks in northern Europe had first been known as "Huga"8 and this name is one of the indications linking them with the Hugie of Scythia. Amongst the Hugie of Scythia Tribal names (such as "Gali") associated with the Galatians existed. A Galatian connection could explain the Troy and Phrygian legendary associations of the Franks since a small but famous group of Galatians had returned from the west to the east, attacked Greece, crossed over from Europe into Asia Minor and then settled in Phrygia (near Troy) in Anatolia. Some Galatians had also (at another stage) gone further eastward into Scythia and these too may have linked up with the Hugie. The Galatians were descended from part of the ancient Cimmerians9 a portion of whom had previously (before moving into Europe) also sojourned for about 160 years in Phrygia. The Franks were to eventually settle in Holland, Belgium, and north France. They are mainly descended from the Tribe of Reuben though included contingents of other Israelites.
Before the exile, the Tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half-Menasseh had together been settled in GILEAD and Bashan on the eastern banks of the Jordan in the Land of Israel. Later part of the Tribe of Simeon also settled there (1-Chronicles 4;42). This pattern of settlement was to be paralleled later by descendants of these same tribes in Scythia.
There were some Galatian groups (such as the Tectosaces and Gala) in the Hugie federation of Scythia though most of the Galatians had reached Gaul, Britain, and the west much earlier and remained there. In Scythia the Hugie (of Reuben) were adjacent to the Goths of Gad and to the Amyrgian-Sakae descendants of Machir who had been the leading element in half-Menasseh, east of Jordan, in Israel. "GILEAD" was a name given to a good portion of the Land of Israel east of Jordan including that in which the Tribe of Reuben dwelt. Gilead was also the name of a son of Machir (son of Menasseh). The Galaadi or Galatians received their name either from the Israelite region of Gilead or from the Israelite clan of Gilead son of Menasseh who dwelt in part of Gilead. This is worth emphasizing since it can cause confusion: "Gilead" was an important clan in the Tribe of Menasseh east of the Jordan but the name "Gilead" could also be applied to the whole Israelite area east of the Jordan in which settled Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Menasseh.
As I weigh the various arguments, I see that, on the one hand, the Early Church believed that Paul wrote the epistle to the ethnic Galatians. This is strong argument from tradition, though by the time they wrote, the Province of Galatia was now reduced to include mainly the Kingdom of Galatia (ethnic Galatia).On the other hand, it seems inherently more likely to me that, instead of having to hypothesize a separate ethnic Galatian evangelization mission (an argument from silence), Paul is writing this epistle to churches that he visited on his First, Second, and Third Missionary Journeys, chronicled in the Book of Acts. I find the South Galatian Theory more convincing.
On the North Galatian hypothesis, ..
On the other hand, proponents of the South Galatian Theory put forward these arguments. Some, you'll notice, take the same facts as the North Galatian adherents, but see them pointing a different direction. Some of these arguments are strong, others are weak.
The original kingdom of the Galatians was confined after a defeat at the hands of Attalus I, king of Pergamum about 230 BC into an area which had formerly belonged to Phrygia. Bruce says that the three tribes of Galatians occupied "a broad strip of land stretching over 200 miles from south-west to north-east, between the longitudes of 31° to 35° E and the latitudes of 39° and 40°, 30' N,"which we'll call the Kingdom of Galatia or ethnic Galatia (see map below). Their capital became Ancyra (the modern capital of the Turkish Republic).
Introduction to Galatians | NTGateway
A second factor affecting dating is whether you adopt a South Galatian Theory of the recipients or a North Galatian Theory, though this is not entirely definitive.
The Greek word Galatai is a variant of Keltaior Keltoi, that is the "Celts" (Latin Galli). The Celts in the Danube basin of central Europe migrated not only west to Gaul and Britain, but also southeast into north central Asia Minor.
Early Christian Writings - Galatians
List of Indo-European languages - Wikipedia
Information on Galatians
Kingdoms of Greece - Thrace - The History Files
Galatians is one of the four letters of Paul known as the Hauptbriefe, which are universally accepted as authentic
Haplogroup R1b - R1b1a2a1a1b4f - Subclade L21 - …
Barbarian - Wikipedia
The 'Lost Tribe' of Reuben: France in Prophecy? - …
There is an old debate as to whether Paul's letter was directed to northern Galatia, where the ethnic Galatians lived, or to southern part of the Galatian province, where cities such as Iconium are located. Raymond E. Brown states that the arguments for the northern theory "seem more persuasive" (, p. 476). Udo Schnelle writes (, p. 97): "On the whole the arguments for the north Galatian hypothesis are stronger. In particular, the absence of the addressees in Gal. 1.21, the Lucan statement about Paul's work in 'the region of . . . Galatia' and the address in Gal. 3.1, along with the well thought out arrangement of the letter as a whole, speak against the south Galatian theory."
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