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Quality control of inner nuclear membrane proteins by …

Also called the , nuclear membrane is the casing/protective covering that encloses the nucleus.

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The DNA in your cells is protected by a nuclear membrane

Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).
smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane).

The functions of nuclear membranes can be more easily grasped by knowing its structural components.

The nuclear lamina is a very dense network of intermediate filaments that help in protein synthesis inside cells and also manages DNA replication and division of cells.

When are ribosomes used in the process of protein synthesis

In the process of mitosis and meiosis, these membranes help to regulate transport of minerals between nucleus and cytoplasm.

In prokaryotes, the transcription and translation processes occur simultaneously as there is no nuclear membrane to separate the genetic DNA and the cytoplasm.

Owing to nuclear envelope (that separates cytoplasm and nucleoplasm), certain protein synthesis reactions undergo in cells and these proteins, in humans, have been linked to several diseases like muscular dystrophy, premature aging, etc.

When the cell needs to make a protein, mRNA is created in the nucleus

The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes).

Molecular imaging, defined as the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms, can be obtained by various imaging technologies, including nuclear imaging methods. Imaging of normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid cancer, and treatment of thyroid cancer with radioiodine rely on the expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in these cells. NIS is an intrinsic membrane protein with 13 transmembrane domains and it takes up iodide into the cytosol from the extracellular fluid. By transferring NIS function to various cells via gene transfer, the cells can be visualized with gamma or positron emitting radioisotopes such as Tc-99m, I-123, I-131, I-124 and F-18 tetrafluoroborate, which are accumulated by NIS. They can also be treated with beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides, such as I-131, Re-186, Re-188 and At-211, which are also accumulated by NIS. This article demonstrates the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of NIS as a radionuclide-based reporter gene for trafficking cells and a therapeutic gene for treating cancers.

The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane
ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane).

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  • The following is a glossary of animal cell terms

    07/11/2014 · Quality control of inner nuclear membrane proteins by ..

  • Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

    occur simultaneously as there is no nuclear membrane to separate the ..

  • Protein - definition of protein by The Free Dictionary

    Protein Synthesis

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Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

The process of synthesis of proteins from mRNA (translation of language of nucleic acids into the language of proteins) is called translation. There are 20 different types of amino acids, which constitute various proteins, and these amino acids themselves cannot recognize their respective codons in the mRNA. Different amino acids are carried by their specific tRNA molecules at the
site of protein synthesis (mRNA). There are about 55 types of tRNA molecules available in the cytoplasm, so that one amino acid may have more than one tRNAs.

Bile Acid Synthesis, Metabolism and Biological Functions

The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing somesubstances to pass into the cell and blocking others.
centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules.

Bile Acid Synthesis and Utilization

Inhibition of HMGCR by statins is a rate-limitingstep in the mevalonate pathway. The products of the mevalonatepathway include isoprene units incorporated into sterol andnon-sterol compounds. This inhibition by a statin may result indecreased levels of mevalonate and its downstream products, whichaffects critical cell functions such as membrane integrity, cellsignaling, protein synthesis and cell cycle progression. The effectof statins on these processes and consequently on tumor cells, maytherefore be able to control tumor initiation, growth andmetastasis () (–).

The end products of cholesterol utilization are the bile acids

ADP, adenosinediphosphate; AML, acute myeloid leukemia; AMPK, adeninemonophosphate-activated protein kinase; CCL17, chemokine (C-Cmotif) ligand 17; CDK, cyclin-dependent kinase; CHOP,CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; DES,diethylstilbestrol; DR5, death receptor-5; ERK, extracellularsignal-regulated kinase; ERK1/2, extracellular signal-regulatedkinase 1 and 2; EZH2, enhancer of zeste homolog 2; FAK, focaladhesion kinase; GGPP, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate; GI,gastrointestinal; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2;HMGCR, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase; HNSCC, head andneck squamous cell carcinomas; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactiveprotein; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IL,interleukin; JAK, janus kinase; STAT3, signal transducer andactivator of transcription 3; JNK 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1and 2; LC3-II, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate; LDL, low-density lipid; LKB1,liver kinase B1; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; NNK,4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone; MAPK,mitogen-activated protein kinase; MICA, major histocompatibilitycomplex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A; MMP-9, matrixmetalloproteinase-9; MT1-MMP, membrane type 1 metalloproteinase;mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; MYPT1, myosin phosphatasetarget subunit 1; NADPH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephosphate; NF-κB, nuclear factor κB; NK, natural killer; PARP,poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; pJNK, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminalkinase; p-LDL, peroxidized low-density lipoprotein;p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, twocyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors; p38MAPK, p38 mitogen-activatedprotein kinase; ppm, parts per million; PTEN, phosphatase andtensin homolog; ROCK1, Rho-associated kinase 1; ROS, reactiveoxygen species; SCID, severe combined immunodeficient; TLR4,toll-like receptor 4; TNBC, triple negative breast cancer; TNF,tumor necrosis factor; TUNEL, terminal dUTP nick end-labeling;VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF-A, vascularendothelial growth factor A; XIAP, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosisprotein.

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