39] ID is Nothing More Than a “God of the Gaps” Hypothesis
This allegedly common ground is captured by the two flag words of the movement: "intelligent" and "design".
The real evidence of an intelligence is finding that intelligence.
Many examples of fine-tuning have to do with star formation. Starsare important since life requires a variety of elements: oxygen,carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Stars containthe only known mechanism for producing large quantities of theseelements and are therefore necessary for life. Lee Smolin estimatesthat when all of the fine-tuning examples are considered, the chanceof stars existing in the universe is 1 in 10229. “Inmy opinion, a probability this tiny is not something we can let gounexplained. Luck will certainly not do here; we need some rationalexplanation of how something this unlikely turned out to be thecase” (Smolin 1999, 45).
In my book The Design Inference, I argue that specified complexity reliably detects design. In that book, however, I focus largely on examples from the human rather than the natural sciences. The main criticism of that work to date concerns whether the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and random variation is not in fact fully capable of generating specified complexity. More recently, in No Free Lunch, I show that undirected natural processes like the Darwinian mechanism are incapable of generating the specified complexity that exists in biological organisms. It follows that chance and necessity are insufficient for the natural sciences and that the natural sciences need to leave room for design.
Is Intelligent Design Theory Really an Argument for …
ORGEL, 1973: . . . In brief, living organisms are distinguished by their . Crystals are usually taken as the prototypes of simple well-specified structures, because they consist of a very large number of identical molecules packed together in a uniform way. Lumps of granite or random mixtures of polymers are examples of structures that are complex but not specified. The crystals fail to qualify as living because they lack complexity; the mixtures of polymers fail to qualify because they lack specificity. [The Origins of Life (John Wiley, 1973), p. 189.]
Intuitively, if the laws of physics were different, the evolution oflife would not have taken the same path. If gravity werestronger, for example, then flying insects and giraffes would mostlikely not exist. The truth is far more dramatic. Even anextraordinarily small change in one of many key parameters in the lawsof physics would have made life impossible anywhere in theuniverse. Consider two examples:
Theory of Intelligent Design – Crystalinks
Some systems seem very difficult to form by such successive modifications—I call them irreducibly complex. An everyday example of an irreducibly complex system is the humble mousetrap. It consists of (1) a flat wooden platform or base; (2) a metal hammer, which crushes the mouse; (3) a spring with extended ends to power the hammer; (4) a catch that releases the spring; and (5) a metal bar that connects to the catch and holds the hammer back. You can’t catch a mouse with just a platform, then add a spring and catch a few more mice, then add a holding bar and catch a few more. All the pieces have to be in place before you catch any mice.
Irreducibly complex systems appear very unlikely to be produced by numerous, successive, slight modifications of prior systems, because any precursor that was missing a crucial part could not function. Natural selection can only choose among systems that are already working, so the existence in nature of irreducibly complex biological systems poses a powerful challenge to Darwinian theory. We frequently observe such systems in cell organelles, in which the removal of one element would cause the whole system to cease functioning. The flagella of bacteria are a good example. They are outboard motors that bacterial cells can use for self-propulsion. They have a long, whiplike propeller that is rotated by a molecular motor. The propeller is attached to the motor by a universal joint. The motor is held in place by proteins that act as a stator. Other proteins act as bushing material to allow the driveshaft to penetrate the bacterial membrane. Dozens of different kinds of proteins are necessary for a working flagellum. In the absence of almost any of them, the flagellum does not work or cannot even be built by the cell.
01/04/2011 · Theory of Intelligent Design
Here is a defence of intelligent design for ..
10/08/2013 · Many critics of intelligent design have promoted false, straw-man versions of ID.
Intelligent Design Theory – An Overview
hypothesis supremely intelligent being who designed these beings God Paley from MODR 1770 at York University
on the intelligent design hypothesis, ..
22/08/2016 · What are the main arguments in support of the Intelligent Design Theory
What is Intelligent Design - The Influence
In short, those who would give concepts such as specified complexity, functionally specific complex organisation and associated information, the design inference on characteristic empirical signs such as FSCO/I, the cosmological design inference on evident fine tuning of physics, short dismissive thrift, would be well advised instead to turn down irritation and impatient dismissal, and pause to see what is going on here that has given pause to minds of such calibre.
intelligent design centers on Paley 's ..
I do not believe that any physicist who examined the evidence could fail to draw the inference that the laws of nuclear physics have been deliberately designed with regard to the consequences they produce within stars. [“The Universe: Past and Present Reflections.” Engineering and Science, November, 1981. pp. 8–12]
Sandwalk: Is Intelligent Design Scientific?
one has to consider the role of the observer, who is analogous tothe net in the fishing example. Since human observers could onlydetect constants in the life-permitting range, Sober argues, thecorrect probabilities are
12.11.2012 · Is Intelligent Design Scientific
Once we see that life is cosmic it is sensible to suppose that intelligence is cosmic. Now So if one proceeds directly and straightforwardly in this matter, without being deflected by a fear of incurring the wrath of scientific opinion, one arrives at the conclusion that biomaterials with their amazing measure or order must be the outcome of . No other possibility I have been able to think of in pondering this issue over quite a long time seems to me to have anything like as high a possibility of being true.” [Evolution from Space (The Omni Lecture[ –> Jan 12th 1982]), Enslow Publishers, 1982, pg. 28.]
Intelligent Design is often dismissed as unscientific ..
The focus must now become whether or not the laws and conditionsrequired for the indirect production of life, intelligent life, etc.,could themselves be independent of intention, design and mind at somedeep (perhaps primordial, pre-cosmic) point. In recent decades,exactly that question has arisen increasingly insistently from withinthe scientific community.
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