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What are the parts of the plant cell involved in photosynthesis

Plants cells contain a number of structures that are involved in the process of photosynthesis:

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Identify the parts of the plant involved in photosynthesis

The process of transforming requires millions of years. When organic sediments are buried, most of the oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur of dead organisms is released, leaving behind carbon and some hydrogen in a substance called , in a process that is . Plate tectonics can subduct sediments, particularly where oceanic plates meet continental plates. There is an “oil window” roughly between 2,000 and 5,000 meters deep; if kerogen-rich sediments are buried at those depths for long enough (millions of years), (which produce high temperature and pressure) break down complex organic molecules and the result is the hydrocarbons that comprise petroleum. If organic sediments never get that deep, they remain kerogen. If they are subducted deeper than that for long enough, bonds are broken and the result is , which is also called . Today, the geological processes that make oil can be reproduced in industrial settings that can in a matter of hours. Many hydrocarbon sources touted today as replacements for conventional oil were never in the oil window, so were not “refined” into oil and remain kerogen. The so-called and are made of kerogen ( is soluble kerogen). It takes a great deal of energy to refine kerogen into oil, which is why kerogen is an inferior energy resource. Nearly a century ago in it took less than one barrel of oil energy to produce one hundred barrels, for an energy return on investment ("EROI" or "") of more than 100, in the Golden Age of Oil. Global EROI is declining fast and will fall to about 10 by 2020. The EROIs of those oil shales and oil sands are less than five and as low as two.

Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis

Those molecules initiate photosynthesis by trapping photons. Chlorophyll is called a and, as it sits in its “,” it only absorbs wavelengths of light that . The wavelengths that plant chlorophyll does absorb well are in the green range, which is why plants are green. Some photosynthetic bacteria absorb green light, so , and there are many similar variations among bacteria. Those initial higher electron orbits from photon capture are not stable and would soon collapse back to their lower levels and emit light again, defeating the process, but in the electron is stripped from the capturing molecule and put into another molecule with a more stable orbit. That pathway of carrying the electron that got “excited” by the captured photon is called an . Separating protons from electrons via chemical reactions, and then using their resultant electrical potential to drive mechanical processes, is how life works.

The process of photosynthesis is divided into two main parts.

“One of the physical challenges for those tumor cells will be how to survive in the new sites.

Trees first appeared during a plant diversity crisis, and the arrival of seed plants and ferns ended the dominance of the first trees, so the plant crises may have been more about evolutionary experiments than environmental conditions, although a carbon dioxide crash and ice age conditions would have impacted photosynthesizers. The that gave rise to trees and seed plants largely went extinct at the Devonian’s end. But what might have been the most dramatic extinction, as far as humans are concerned, was the impact on land vertebrates. During the about 20% of all families, 50% of all genera, and 70% of all species disappeared forever.

It can be helpful at this juncture to grasp the cumulative impact of , inventing , inventing , inventing that made possible, and inventing . Pound-for-pound, the complex organisms that began to dominate Earth’s ecosphere during the Cambrian Period consumed energy about 100,000 times as fast as the Sun produced it. Life on Earth is an incredibly energy-intensive phenomenon, powered by sunlight. In the end, only so much sunlight reaches Earth, and it has always been life’s primary limiting variable. Photosynthesis became more efficient, aerobic respiration was an order-of-magnitude leap in energy efficiency, the oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans allowed animals to colonize land and ocean sediments and even fly, and life’s colonization of land allowed for a . Life could exploit new niches and even help create them, but the key innovations and pioneering were achieved long ago. If humanity attains the , new niches will arise, even of the , but all other creatures living on Earth have constraints, primarily energy constraints, which produce very real limits. Life on Earth has largely been a for several hundred million years, but the Cambrian Explosion was one of those halcyonic times when animal life had its greatest expansion, not built on the bones of a mass extinction so much as blazing new trails.

Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast of a plant cell ..

Smooth ER has no 80s ribosomes and is also involved in the regulation of calcium levels in muscle cells, and the breakdown of toxins by liver cells

Artists have been depicting Carboniferous swamps for more than a century, and the . That represents a key Carboniferous issue and perhaps why the period ended. That , and others like it, appeared in the fossil record about 300 mya, when oxygen levels were Earth’s highest ever, at somewhere between 25% and 35%. The almost universally accepted reason for that high oxygen level is that for the entire Carboniferous Period removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in vast amounts. Today, the estimate is that carbon dioxide fell from about 1,500 PPM at the beginning of the Carboniferous to 350 PPM by the end, which is lower than today’s value. That tandem effect of sequestering carbon and freeing oxygen not only may have led to huge arthropods and amphibians, but also intensified . The idea that high oxygen levels led to those giants was first proposed more than a century ago and dismissed, but has recently come back into favor. Flying insects have the highest metabolisms of all animals, but they do not have diaphragmatic lungs as mammals have, or air sac lungs as birds have, and although they may have some way of actively breathing by contracting their tracheas, it is not the bellows action of vertebrate lungs. The for early insect gigantism is that high oxygen, as well as a denser atmosphere (the nitrogen mass would not have fallen, so increased oxygen would have added to the atmosphere’s mass), would have enabled such leviathans to fly, and the other is that flying insects got a head start in the arms race and could grow large until predators that could catch them evolved. The late Permian had an even larger dragonfly, when oxygen levels had crashed back down. The evolution of flight is another area of great controversy, and insects accomplished it long before vertebrates did. The general idea is that flight structures evolved from those used for other purposes. For insects, wings appear to have evolved from aquatic “oars,” and gills became lungs. Reptiles did not develop flight until the Triassic, and .

While oxygen level changes of the model show early fluctuations that the model does not, both models agree on a huge rise in oxygen levels in the late Devonian and Carboniferous, in tandem with collapsing carbon dioxide levels. There is also virtually universal agreement that that situation is due to rainforest development. Rainforests dominated the Carboniferous Period. If the Devonian could be considered terrestrial life’s , then the Carboniferous was its . In the Devonian, plants developed vascular systems, photosynthetic foliage, seeds, roots, and bark, and true forests first appeared. Those basics remain unchanged to this day, but in the Carboniferous there was great diversification within those body plans, and Carboniferous plants formed the foundation for the first complex land-based ecosystems. Ever since the episodes, there has , and the that have prominently shaped Earth’s eon of complex life probably always began with ice sheets at the South Pole, and the current ice age arguably is the only partial exception, but today’s cold period really began about 35 mya, .

Glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Glucose made by the process of photosynthesis may be used in three ways:
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What's the difference between Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

When sea levels rise as dramatically as they did in the Cretaceous, coral reefs will be buried under rising waters and the ideal position, for both photosynthesis and oxygenation, is lost, and reefs can die, like burying a tree’s roots. About 125 mya, reefs made by , which thrived on , began to displace reefs made by stony corals. They may have prevailed because they could tolerate hot and saline waters better than stony corals could. About 116 mya, an , probably caused by volcanism, which temporarily halted rudist domination. But rudists flourished until the late Cretaceous, when they went extinct, perhaps due to changing climate, although there is also evidence that the rudists . Carbon dioxide levels steadily fell from the early Cretaceous until today, temperatures fell during the Cretaceous, and hot-climate organisms gradually became extinct during the Cretaceous. Around 93 mya, , perhaps caused by underwater volcanism, which again seems to have largely been confined to marine biomes. It was much more devastating than the previous one, and rudists were hit hard, although it was a more regional event. That event seems to have , and a family of . On land, , some of which seem to have , also went extinct. There had been a decline in sauropod and ornithischian diversity before that 93 mya extinction, but it subsequently rebounded. In the oceans, biomes beyond 60 degrees latitude were barely impacted, while those closer to the equator were devastated, which suggests that oceanic cooling was related. shows rising oxygen and declining carbon dioxide in the late Cretaceous, which reflected a general cooling trend that began in the mid-Cretaceous. Among the numerous hypotheses posited, late Cretaceous climate changes have been invoked for slowly driving dinosaurs to extinction, in the “they went out with a whimper, not a bang” scenario. However, it seems that dinosaurs did go out with a bang. A big one. Ammonoids seem to have been brought to the brink with nearly marine mass extinctions during their tenure on Earth, and it was no different with that late-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonoids recovered once again, and their lived in the late Cretaceous, but the end-Cretaceous extinction marked their final appearance as they went the way of and other iconic animals.

photosynthesis occurs in plant cells that have the …

The issue of avian and dinosaurian air sacs and when they evolved has been the focus of a rancorous dispute that was only recently resolved and hinged on the hollow parts of bones, which is a phenomenon called . The controversy involved dinosaur bone pneumaticity and how it may have been related to birds. In a , it was shown that birds have their most important air sacs where nobody thought they were, near a bird’s tail, not its head. Not only that, pneumatic bones are all related to the air sac system, and birds have the same pneumatic bones as saurischian dinosaurs did. The obvious implication is that the air sac system evolved in theropods and sauropods, when dinosaurs first appeared. If the air sac system appeared with the first dinosaurs, it is one more big reason why dinosaurs prevailed over the less respiratorily gifted therapsids. Such a highly effective respiration system evolving in a low-oxygen environment is a tantalizing hypothesis.

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