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Photosynthesis and plant growth at elevated levels of CO2

An example of photosynthesis is how plants convert sugar and energy from water, air and sunlight into energy to grow.

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The tiny plant inside the seed begins to grow.

How horticulturalists choose to balance the ratio of red to blue light will likely depend on the specific plant species being cultivated and their stage of growth. Some plants like shade, while others prefer direct sunlight, with different SPD requirements. In addition, far-red 735 nm LEDs may be employed to induce flowering. Regardless, the above conversion factors will still be useful.

It keeps it from drying out until the seed can grow into a new plant. Seeds fall to the ground.

This causes the embryo to expand causing the to emerge from the seed.
In simpler terms, when a mature seed falls to the ground, it absorbs the moisture from the soil, which in turn propels the seed to decompose and eventually give way to a new plant.

" Photosynthesis and plant growth at elevated levels of CO2 "

A fully developed seed is often dry and has a protective covering known as the .

Plants also exhibit photomorphological responses (i.e., growth and development) to ultraviolet radiation (Zuk-Golaszewska et al. 2003). In the past, this has been mostly of theoretical interest to botanists. Now however with the rapid commercialization of ultraviolet LEDs (Shih 2015) with wavelengths covering the plant biologically-active spectrum of 280 nm to 400 nm, UV-A and UV-B LEDs will likely also find application in horticultural lighting.

In addition to using chlorophylls and carotenoids for photosynthesis, plants use these and other photopigments for a wide variety of functions. The phytochromes Pr and Pfr, for example, respond to 660 nm red and 735 nm infrared radiation respectively, and in doing so induce seed germination and flowering, regulate leaf expansion and stem elongation, and trigger photoperiod and shade avoidance responses (see Appendix A).

Seeds can often last for several years, often in very tiny forms

When the seed lands in a place with soil, sunlight, and water, it can grow.

Like human growth, plant growth also takes place primarily through the process of cell division.

Growth as we all know, is a process of irreversible increase in mass that results from cell division and cell expansion.

To aid the process of germination, a seed requires nutrient-rich soil, adequate sunlight, and sufficient water.

When such a seed falls to the ground and it gets sufficient water and the required temperature it begins to germinate.


The absorbed water nourishes the embryo of the seed which in turn aids the process of cell duplication.

"Fluorescent Lights for Plant Growth." University of Alaska Fairbanks.
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  • Factors affecting Plant Growth | Photosynthesis | Plants

    The growth process is enhanced by the nutrients and the light energy that is used during photosynthesis.

  • Photosynthesis & plant growth Flashcards | Quizlet

    It is through the process of dying that the seed bears life and is transformed into a fresh new plant.

  • Photosynthesis, transpiration and plant growth …

    These nodes puncture the outer covering of the seed to reveal the or the primary root of the plant.

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Photosynthesis and plant growth at elevated levels of …

Terashima, I., T. Fujita, T. Inoue, W. S. Chow, and R. Oguchi. 1009. “Green Light Drives Leaf Photosynthesis More Efficiently than Red Light in Strong White Light: Revisiting the Enigmatic Question of Why Leaves are Green,” Plant & Cell Physiology 50(4):684-697.

Photosynthesis and respiration - Plant Factory - …

McCree, K. J. 1972a. “The Action Spectrum, Absorptance and Quantum Yield of Photosynthesis in Crop Plants,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9:191-216.

Plant Growth and Development - National Drought …

Chlorophyllous leaves are transparent to infrared radiation, are so the phytochrome signaling mechanism is ideal for sensing the lighting environment on forest floors and in the presence of neighboring plants competing for available direct sunlight.

IB Biology Notes - 9.1 Plant structure and growth

Zhu, X.-G., S. P. Long, and D. R. Ort. 2010. “Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield,” Annual Review of Plant Biology 61:235-261.

IB Biology notes on 9.1 Plant structure and growth

Above 700 nm, the photon energy is too low to activate the photosynthetic process via the chlorophylls and various cartenoids. However, the phytochrome photopigment, which is responsible for stem elongation, leaf expansion, shade avoidance, neighbor perception, seed germination, and flower induction, has two isoforms called Pr and Pfr. In its ground state Pr, phytochrome has a spectral absorbance peak of 660 nm. When it absorbs a red photon, it converts to its Pfr state, which has a spectral absorbance peak of 730 nm. When the phytochrome molecule absorbs a far-red photon, it converts back to its Pr state, and in doing so triggers a physiological change in the plant.

Light Quality in Plant Growth and Development

Below 400 nm, there is the risk of photooxidation that generates toxic radicals, which can destroy the cell’s chlorophyll and other cellular components. Under intense UV radiation, violaxanthin (which is involved in photosynthesis) is converted via the xanthophyll cycle into zeaxanthin. In doing so, it receives excess energy from chlolorphyll and releases it as heat. This process thereby offers the plant photoprotection.

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