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Photosynthesis Song College and University

Graphic notes to help students master photosynthesis and cellular respiration…

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Photosynthesis and respiration

But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)

Photosynthesis and Respiration - ThingLink

As with enzymes, the molecules used in biological processes are often huge and complex, but ATP energy drives all processes and that energy came from either potential chemical energy in Earth’s interior or sunlight, but even chemosynthetic organisms rely on sunlight to provide their energy. The Sun thus powers all life on Earth. The cycles that capture energy (photosynthesis or chemosynthesis) or produce it (fermentation or respiration) generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the . Below is a diagram of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Song Lyrics - …

The respiration and photosynthesis cycles in complex organisms have been the focus of a great deal of scientific effort, and cyclic diagrams (, ) can provide helpful portrayals of how cycles work. Photosynthesis has several cycles in it, and Nobel Prizes were awarded to the scientists who helped describe the cycles. Chlorophyll molecules , with magnesium in their porphyrin cages, and long tails. Below is a diagram of a chlorophyll molecule. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

As with other early life processes, the first photosynthetic process was different from today’s, but the important result – capturing sunlight to power biological processes – was the same. The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a in a was used for capturing sunlight. Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor (for locating volcanic vents). But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation.

Photosynthesis And Respiration | MP3 Download

as Venus and Mars did, which saved all life on Earth. An atmosphere of as little as two percent oxygen may have been adequate to form the ozone layer, and that level was likely first attained during the first GOE. The ozone layer absorbs most of . Ultraviolet light carries more energy than visible light and breaks covalent and other bonds and , particularly to DNA and RNA. Before the ozone layer formed, life would have had a challenging time surviving near the ocean’s surface. Ultraviolet light damage presented a formidable evolutionary hurdle, and proteins and enzymes that assist cellular division . Life has adapted to many hostile conditions in Earth’s past, but if conditions change too rapidly, life cannot adapt in time to survive. that dot Earth’s past were probably the result of conditions changing too rapidly for most organisms to adapt, if they could have adapted at all. During the , which was the greatest extinction event yet known, there is evidence that the ozone layer was depleted and . From the formation of to mass extinction events, ultraviolet light has played a role.

are limited in size because their energy production only takes place at their cellular membranes. In ecosystems, the race usually goes to the quick, and it is very true with bacteria, as the smallest bacteria are faster and “win” the race of survival. Mitochondria increase the membrane surface area for ATP reactions to take place, which allowed cells to grow in size. The average eukaryotic cell has more than 10 thousand times the mass of the average prokaryotic cell, and the largest eukaryotic cells have hundreds of thousands of times the mass (or around a trillion times for ostrich eggs, for instance, which exist as single-cells when formed). Where an organism has the greatest energy needs, such as in muscle and nerve cells, the greatest numbers of mitochondria are found. In a typical animal cell, dotted with hundreds of mitochondria, a single mitochondrion is the size of the prokaryote that became the mitochondrion, and is representative of prokaryote size in general. That increased surface area to generate ATP allowed eukaryotic cells to grow large and complex. There are quintillions (a million trillion) of those in a human body, spinning at up to hundreds of revolutions per second, generating ATP molecules.

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  • Unit C: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - …

    The song Photosynthesis and Respiration just for evaluate. Buy a cassete and/or CD/DVDs if you like the song.

  • Unit C: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

    In terms of the gas taken in and the gas given out, photosynthesis is the opposite of respiration.

  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - ThingLink

    The equations of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are the reverse of each other

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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration WebQuest: Task

In the earliest days of life on Earth, it had to solve the problems of how to reproduce, how to separate itself from its environment, how to acquire raw materials, and how to make the chemical reactions that it needed. But it was confined to those areas where it could take advantage of briefly available potential energy as . The earliest process of skimming energy from energy gradients to power life is called respiration. That earliest respiration is today called because there was virtually no free oxygen in the atmosphere or ocean in those early days. Respiration was life’s first energy cycle. A biological energy cycle begins by harvesting an energy gradient (usually by a proton crossing a membrane or, in photosynthesis, directly capturing photon energy), and the acquired energy powered chemical reactions. The cycle then proceeds in steps, and the reaction products of each step sequentially use a little more energy from the initial capture until the initial energy has been depleted and the cycle’s molecules are returned to their starting point and ready for a fresh influx of energy to repeat the cycle.

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Project by Adam …

It can help to think of mitochondria as “distributed” energy generation centers in eukaryotes, versus the “perimeter” energy generation in prokaryotes. The new mode of energy production presented various challenges, but it allowed life to become large and complex. Size is important, at the cellular level as well as the organism level. Below is a diagram of a typical plant cell. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8 - YouTube

Perhaps a few hundred million years after the first mitochondrion appeared, as the oceanic oxygen content, at least on the surface, increased as a result of oxygenic photosynthesis, those complex cells learned to use oxygen instead of hydrogen. It is difficult to overstate the importance of learning to use oxygen in respiration, called . Before the appearance of aerobic respiration, life generated energy via and . Because oxygen , aerobic respiration generates, on average, about per cycle as fermentation and anaerobic respiration do (although some types of anaerobic respiration can get ). The suite of complex life on Earth today would not have been possible without the energy provided by oxygenic respiration. At minimum, nothing could have flown, and any animal life that might have evolved would have never left the oceans because the atmosphere would not have been breathable. With the advent of aerobic respiration, became possible, as it is several times as efficient as anaerobic respiration and fermentation (about 40% as compared to less than 10%). Today’s food chains of several levels would be constrained to about two in the absence of oxygen. Some scientists have and oxygen and respiration in eukaryote evolution. is controversial.

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