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The structure of the chloroplast

Chloroplast is a plastid, which is responsible for the complete execution of the photosynthesis process.

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the green pigment inplant cells that absorbs sunlight

Purpose After realizing that foreign proteins can build up to high levels in transformed tobacco chloroplasts, scientists tried to figure out what regions of the gene can attain max expression (converting info to mRNA and then the protein)
can be effected by genes located up and downstream Engineering of the abundance Vectors can be constructed to delete or mutate every region of the chloroplast genome because of the natural homologous recombination that occurs in chloroplasts
Through process of elimination, scientists have figured out what parts are essential for photosynthesis in certain plants Probing photosynthesis Can improve photosynthesis efficiency by modifying RuBisCo genes in plants to increase catalytic activity, or reducing photorespiration Altering vascular plant RuBisCO Because large amounts of RuBisCO is needed for photosynthesis, direct placement and optimized synthesis in the plastome is needed for enough conversion of info to the mRNA and for the protein
Varies with the type of plant working with Potential for engineering of photosynthesis Inability to obtain regenerated homoplasmic monocotyledonous transplastomic plants
Absence of a method to obtain regenerated fertile Arabidopsis transplastomic plants
Cannot use the surplus Arabidopsis (small plants related to cabbage and mustard) genetic and genomic resources available Limitations Basics How?

Autotrophic activityin plant cells occur in organelles called ...

Printout A plant is a member of the kingdom Plantae, a living organism that utilizes photosynthesis, a process in which energy from sunlight is converted to chemical energy (food).

Chloroplast Makes energy forOccurs inOne of the cyclesProduces

The granum (plural grana) is a stack of which contains the photosynthetic pigments; this is where the light dependent stage takes place:

Sunlight provides energy for the reaction.

Photosynthesis occurs in the chlorophyll - the light-absorbing pigment within chloroplasts (the organelle where PS occurs).

The structure of the chloroplast and photosynthetic membranes

Chloroplast Membrane
The chloroplast is covered by a thick lipid bi-layer membrane, which controls the transport of materials into and out of this cell organelle.

Through a process called 'Resonance Energy Transfer', the solar energy absorbed is transferred to the photosynthesis reaction centers in the form of excited electrons.

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  • What is the function of chloroplasts

    They are contained within the parenchyma cells in terrestrial plants, each having about a hundred chloroplasts.

  • The main function of the chloroplast is photosynthesis

    They are flat disc shaped sub-organelles of chloroplast, that are stacked vertically over each other.

  • This tutorial introduces plant chloroplasts

    The stroma is the fluid part of the chloroplast which contains the controlling the fixation reactions.

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The Process of Photosynthesis in Plants (With Diagram)

The unique structure of chloroplast is supposed to have evolved from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria (blue green algae) over the course of millions of years.

Transforming Chloroplast for Engineering Photosynthesis …

Chloroplast is indeed a sophisticated light gathering mechanism, which forms the 'kitchens' of plants, where carbon dioxide and water is processed to create sugars like glucose through conversion of solar energy into chemical energy.

Photosynthesis — bozemanscience

The mechanism inside Eukaryotic cells and plants that makes photosynthesis possible is chloroplast.

Chloroplast Structure and Function

Chloroplasts are cell organelles, whose prime function is to convert the energy derived from sunlight to chemical energy stored in glucose.

Chloroplast - ScienceDaily - ScienceDaily: Your source …

As a by-product of the photosynthesis reaction that occurs within the structure, oxygen is released which is essential for the survival of all living organisms.

The sophistication of the inner chloroplast structure and its functioning is mind-boggling when you realize how precisely everything is put in place for the process of photosynthesis to occur.

This tutorial introduces photosynthesis

Plants use energy from the sun in tiny energy factories called . The green color of leaves is attributable largely to these chloroplasts because they contain for . Though obviously oversimplified, the illustration depicts the somewhat elongated sausage type shape with large dimension 5-10 μm and smaller dimension 3-4 μm. Moore suggests 40-200 chloroplasts per photosynthetic cell and about 500,000 per square millimeter of leaf area.

Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis

Terminal buds have special tissue, called , consisting of cells that can divide indefinitely.
Phyla: The phyla in the kingdom Plantae include: Ginkgophyta, Lycophyta (lower ferns like club mosses), Pterophyta (ferns), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), (flowering plants), Gnetophyta, Sphenophyta, Coniferophyta (conifers), Cycadophyta (cycads), Sphenophyta, and (mosses, liverworts, hornworts).

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