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A decrease in muscle protein synthesis will result in the loss of muscle mass.

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Intro 14 Protein Synthesis - College of the Holy Cross

Although polyethylene glycol (PEG) is commonly used to improve protein stability and therapeutic efficacy, the optimal location for attaching PEG onto proteins is not well understood. Here, we present a cell-free protein synthesis-based screening platform that facilitates site-specific PEGylation and efficient evaluation of PEG attachment efficiency, thermal stability, and activity for different variants of PEGylated T4 lysozyme, including a di-PEGylated variant. We also report developing a computationally efficient coarse-grain simulation model as a potential tool to narrow experimental screening candidates. We use this simulation method as a novel tool to evaluate the locational impact of PEGylation. Using this screen, we also evaluated the predictive impact of PEGylation site solvent accessibility, conjugation site structure, PEG size, and double PEGylation. Our findings indicate that PEGylation efficiency, protein stability, and protein activity varied considerably with PEGylation site, variations that were not well predicted by common PEGylation guidelines. Overall our results suggest current guidelines are insufficiently predictive, highlighting the need for experimental and simulation screening systems such as the one presented here.

The function of the Golgi Apparatus and Endoplasmic reticulum in protein synthesis.

“Resistance Exercise Acutely Increases MHC and Mixed Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in 78-84 and 23-32 yr olds.” American Journal of Physiology 278:620-626.
Nair, K.S.

The ribosome is the location of protein synthesis

NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to the electron-transport chain () that consists of proteins located in the mitochondrial inner membrane.

“Resistance Exercise Training Increases Mixed Muscle Protein Synthesis Rate in Frail Women and Men &Mac179;76 yr old.” American Journal of Physiology 277: 118-125.
Yarasheski, K.E.

These findings suggest that older men and women retain the ability to increase the rate of muscle protein synthesis in response to acute and long-term progressive resistance training.

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

“Acute effects of resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis rate in young and elderly men and women.” American Journal of Physiology 265: E210-E214.

In addition, Yarasheski and others (1999) reported that 3 months of supervised progressive resistance training increased the rate of muscle protein synthesis by approximately 50% in seventeen frail 76 to 92 year old men and women.

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    Intro 14 Protein Synthesis - College of the Holy Read more about amino, protein, trna, synthesis, mrna and proteins.

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Whey Bar | Premium Chocolate Whey Protein Bars

GH and IGF-1 play a dominant role in the regulation of protein metabolism; GH and T are required for protein maintenance; and IGF-1 levels are positively correlated with muscle protein synthesis rates, specifically myofibrillar protein (actin and myosin filaments) and myosin heavy chain synthesis (part of the myosin containing cross-bridges) (Waters, Baumgartner & Garry 2000).

How dietary protein intake promotes wound healing | …

Although polyethylene glycol (PEG) is commonly used to improve protein stability and therapeutic efficacy, the optimal location for attaching PEG onto proteins is not well understood. Here, we present a cell-free protein synthesis-based screening platform that facilitates site-specific PEGylation and efficient evaluation of PEG attachment efficiency, thermal stability, and activity for different variants of PEGylated T4 lysozyme, including a di-PEGylated variant. We also report developing a computationally efficient coarse-grain simulation model as a potential tool to narrow experimental screening candidates. We use this simulation method as a novel tool to evaluate the locational impact of PEGylation. Using this screen, we also evaluated the predictive impact of PEGylation site solvent accessibility, conjugation site structure, PEG size, and double PEGylation. Our findings indicate that PEGylation efficiency, protein stability, and protein activity varied considerably with PEGylation site, variations that were not well predicted by common PEGylation guidelines. Overall our results suggest current guidelines are insufficiently predictive, highlighting the need for experimental and simulation screening systems such as the one presented here.

Nanotechnology: C-R-Newsletter Archives - 2005

The quality and quantity of protein in the body is maintained by a continuous repair process, which involves both protein breakdown and synthesis (Nair 1995).

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Yarasheski and colleagues (1993) also found that muscle protein synthesis rates in older adults (63-66 years) increased significantly in response to 2 weeks of resistance training.

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