Synthesis of phytol and vitamins E and K.

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A contribution to the question of chlorophyll biosynthesis].

Therefore, the main route for fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in Arabidopsis is via PES1 and PES2.

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Biosynthesis of glyceryl-triphytanate in the heart.

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In the present work, the biological function of fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis was investigated.

Therefore, the fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis pathway seems to be preserved from green algae to plants.
The role of PES1 and PES2 in TAG biosynthesis in chlorotic Arabidopsis leaves was further investigated.

Fractionation of hydrogen isotopes during phytol biosynthesis.

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AB - We report the identification and characterization of a low tocopherol Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, vitamin E pathway gene5-1 (vte5-1), with seed tocopherol levels reduced to 20% of the wild type. Map-based identification of the responsible mutation identified a G→A transition, resulting in the introduction of a stop codon in At5g04490, a previously unannotated gene, which we named VTE5. Complementation of the mutation with the wild-type transgene largely restored the wild-type tocopherol phenotype. A knockout mutation of the Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 VTE5 homolog slr1652 reduced Synechocystis tocopherol levels by 50% or more. Bioinformatic analysis of VTE5 and slr1652 indicated modest similarity to dolichol kinase. Analysis of extracts from Arabidopsis and Synechocystis mutants revealed increased accumulation of free phytol. Heterologous expression of these genes in Escherichia coli supplemented with free phytol and in vitro assays of recombinant protein produced phytylmonophosphate, suggesting that VTE5 and slr1652 encode phytol kinases. The phenotype of the vte5-1 mutant is consistent with the hypothesis that chlorophyll degradation-derived phytol serves as an important intermediate in seed tocopherol synthesis and forces reevaluation of the role of geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase in tocopherol biosynthesis.

Traditional views of cell signaling often depict hormone perception mechanisms as simple on-off switches in a one-ligand-one-receptor model, wherein a particular receptor protein is activated solely by its pairing hormone with perfected binding kinetics. However, an increasing body of evidences suggests that hormone-receptor interactions in vivo are more sophisticated than previously thought, which may involve dynamic interactions between a series of structurally related hormone molecules and a family of divergent receptor proteins subject to spatial and temporal regulation. Hormone metabolism not only gives rise to the biosynthesis of one active hormone form, but also yield a series of related metabolites, including the precursor intermediates preceding hormone biosynthesis as well as the compounds that are further metabolized from the most commonly recognized active hormone form. Historically, the signaling properties of these additional hormone-related metabolites were at large overlooked without much scrutiny, yet some of these metabolites have indeed been exploited evolutionarily to serve as new signaling molecules, often in a “biased fashion”, contributing to the signaling complexity within the same organism or across divergent lineages. Using several classical phytohormone systems, we investigate the role of biased ligands, derived from evolutionarily elaborated hormone metabolic systems, in complex signaling regulation in plants.

The biosynthesis of phytol in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp

Moreover, it could be shown that phytol-P phosphorylation is essential for tocopherol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

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  • Biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll is a light-independent reaction

    Chlorophyll the synthesized protein-protein pathway pchlide, the iron oxidoreductases biosynthetic aug 2012.

  • fatty alcohols and aldehydes - Lipid

    However, very little is known about the role and origin of the phytyl moiety for phylloquinone biosynthesis.

  • State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and …

    The stereochemistry of phytol biosynthesis in the leaves of Ficus elasticus and Aesculus hippocastanum. PubMed:

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Photosynthesis Questions: Paper - 03 - GELI Question …

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Lead toxicity in plants - SciELO

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Chromium stress in plants - SciELO

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phytol, 150-86-7 - The Good Scents Company

N2 - We report the identification and characterization of a low tocopherol Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, vitamin E pathway gene5-1 (vte5-1), with seed tocopherol levels reduced to 20% of the wild type. Map-based identification of the responsible mutation identified a G→A transition, resulting in the introduction of a stop codon in At5g04490, a previously unannotated gene, which we named VTE5. Complementation of the mutation with the wild-type transgene largely restored the wild-type tocopherol phenotype. A knockout mutation of the Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 VTE5 homolog slr1652 reduced Synechocystis tocopherol levels by 50% or more. Bioinformatic analysis of VTE5 and slr1652 indicated modest similarity to dolichol kinase. Analysis of extracts from Arabidopsis and Synechocystis mutants revealed increased accumulation of free phytol. Heterologous expression of these genes in Escherichia coli supplemented with free phytol and in vitro assays of recombinant protein produced phytylmonophosphate, suggesting that VTE5 and slr1652 encode phytol kinases. The phenotype of the vte5-1 mutant is consistent with the hypothesis that chlorophyll degradation-derived phytol serves as an important intermediate in seed tocopherol synthesis and forces reevaluation of the role of geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase in tocopherol biosynthesis.

Protochlorophyllide - Wikipedia

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