Design of a Pneumatically Actuated Transfemoral Prosthesis
Nakamura, “Development of Prosthetic Arm with Pneumatic Prosthetic Hand and Tendon-Driven Wrist”, IEEE, 2009.
a Pneumatically Actuated Transfemoral Prosthesis.
Torque-absorbing devices are often added to hip dis-articulation/transpelvic prostheses to reduce the shear forces transmitted to the patient and components. Ideally, they are located just beneath the knee mechanism (Fig 21B-9.). This increases durability by placing the torque unit away from the sagittal stresses of the ankle while avoiding the risk of introducing swing-phase whips (which can occur if it is placed proximal to the knee axis). The major justification for such a component is that the high-level amputee has lost all physiologic joints and, hence, has no way to compensate for the normal rotation of ambulation.
We have designed a new polycentric knee for experimental use. The prototype has a hydraulic and microprocessor-controlled pneumatic unit and a 4-bar linkage with intermediate links. Most of the values of the prosthetic gait parameters with the prototype showed no significant variation in individuals in the different cadences, as were also demonstrated in the healthy volunteers. Although the prototype needs further improvement for practical use, recent mechanical and microelectronic technology could address this practical issue and produce an easy-to-operate prosthesis for amputees at a reasonable price.
Pneumatic Prosthetic Leg for Transfemoral Amputees - …
Transfemoral prostheses work best when aiding the amputees in keeping the walk cycle within the range of normal walking speeds. This problem has been resolved and developed in various knee mechanisms by means of a hydraulic or pneumatic unit incorporated within polycentric knee joints. Among these, the 3R60 is a unique polycentric knee with geometric locking using a 5-bar linkage mechanism. This modular knee offers an EBS with a rubber bumper, which contributes to the production of a stable flexion stance, and provides an automatic swing control with a hydraulic unit . In this study, the biomechanical evaluation focused on the functional performance of the two different knees in maintaining the consistency of the prosthetic walking cycle at the different cadences. Com-parison of the data for individuals at the different cadences using the prototype showed no significant variation in the values of almost all the parameters. The healthy volunteers demonstrated similar results. On the contrary, all parameters showed statistically significant variations in values for individuals at the different cadences in the 3R60.
When transfemoral amputees walk at different speeds, they have to compensate for the pendulum action of the prosthesis by altering their stride length or step rate by tilting the pelvis, or by using other maneuvers, which leads to an abnormal gait and requires extra concentration and physical effort . Because of the lack of most leg muscle function, the values of the biomechanical parameters for the transfemoral amputees were different, as was predicted, from those for the healthy volunteers.
pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that ..
The traditional device prior to 1954 consisted of a molded leather socket with a laterally placed locking hip joint called a tilting-table prosthesis. Often shoulder straps were required for suspension. Gross pelvic thrust was required to propel the prosthesis, and a vaulting gait was common.
We have designed a new polycentric knee for experimental use, which can produce a stable stance knee flexion and easy swing corresponding to a change in walking speed. The prototype has a 4-bar linkage with a pair of intermediate links, a hydraulic unit working during the stance phase, and a pneumatic unit controlled by a microprocessor working during the swing phase (the intelligent knee). This study compared the biomechanical gait parameters for transfemoral amputees at different cadences with those for healthy volunteers and examined the functional performance and subjective evaluation of the prototype compared to those for the prosthetic knees currently being used.
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Current practice patterns vary widely. When intensive rehabilitation programs are located on-site or are closely coordinated with the acute surgical service, providers tend to use rigid, rather than soft, dressings. A survey in 1993 by Pinzur et al. of 299 patients who had TTAs at six VA hospitals with STAMP programs found that wound management was accomplished with rigid plaster dressings 75.3 percent of the time, pneumatic air dressings 14.0 percent, and soft dressings 10.7 percent . A more recent and comprehensive survey in 2001 of 101 surgeons at 92 VA hospitals performing greater than 30 lower-limb amputations a year indicated a reversal of that trend, with 67 percent of patients receiving soft gauze dressings, 14 percent with conventional rigid dressings (with no prosthetic attachment), 5 percent with IPOP, and 14 percent with removable rigid dressings . Neither the number of amputations performed by the surgeon nor academic affiliation or hospital bed size resulted in significant differences in the type of dressing management chosen. Orthopedic surgeons were more likely than vascular or general surgeons to apply rigid dressings. The differences between these two surveys may be due to the differences in the number of hospitals or the number of subjects and the types of VA hospitals included in the two surveys, or the differences could represent a decrease in the frequency of use of rigid dressings as time progressed by the VA system. The later survey, covering over 3,000 subjects in 92 hospitals, and a smaller proportion of these hospitals had specialized STAMP teams.
Teh Sen - prosthesis -- TK-4P72P 4-BAR GEOMETRIC LOCK PNEUMATIC KNEE
We extensively searched several electronic databases, locating both controlled and uncontrolled studies of TTA dressing management techniques. The sources that we searched to obtain data for this review were PubMed (from 1960 to March 2002), Index Medica using MEDLINE (from 1960 to March 2002), reference lists from articles, reviews and book chapters, and personal communication with content experts. The terms used in the search were TTA, below-knee amputation, rigid plaster dressings, soft gauze dressings, air limb, air splint, pneumatic prosthesis, diabetic complications, pain, and cited author cross-references. Studies were included if the amputation was transtibial, data was provided on clinical outcomes, and the results were stratified by the type of dressing. Controlled studies were required to have a control or comparison group, provide information on how study groups were defined, and provide data on both groups.
Patent: Pneumatic stand-up prosthesis - Delft Outlook
It is well accepted that any fluid-control mechanism (hydraulic or pneumatic) results in a smoother gait. Motion studies conducted at Northwestern University have confirmed that a more normal gait for the hip dis-articulation/transpelvic amputee is also produced. Gait analysis has demonstrated that utilization of a hydraulic knee in a hip disarticulation prosthesis results in a significantly more normal range of motion at the hip joint during the walking cycle than is possible with conventional knees. In addition, a more rapid cadence was also possible.
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