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predator escape or ecological release hypothesis [2,3].

defending from predator to increasing growth temporal difference from enemy release hypothesis

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: Hedgehogs I - Wildlife …

There have been other proximate causes of our current ice age, beginning with around 40 mya, and when the land bridge formed between the Americas around three mya , and are responsible for the "wobble" of advancing and retreating ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere during this ice age. There is always the battle of the hypotheses in scientific circles, but the nearly universal consensus is that greenhouse gases, oceanic currents (with a land mass at the South Pole, and the landlocked North Pole), and Milankovitch cycle dynamics, in that ranking of importance, have caused the current ice age. Until the rise of humanity, the primary carbon dioxide input into the carbon cycle was via volcanism, which is related to tectonic plate movements, and plate movements also affected oceanic currents. Scientists are continually surprised by the dynamics and extent of Global Warming, and usually an unpleasant surprise, such as the findings published in 2014 which show that the Antarctic ice sheets are melting faster than expected, and in unexpected ways, and the Greenland ice sheet is also yielding alarming surprises.

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The corporate order that rebranded or that probably resided some levels below the GCs in Earth’s power structure. The connections between them will have almost no publicly available documentation, and what might become public will always have its authenticity debated, and again, I will leave those issues behind for now and focus on more publicly known issues of history and science.


In very real terms, economic production relies on work performed, and the is what economic work is rooted in. Moving an automobile or airplane requires work. Moving water requires work, as does running a household appliance or computer. Electricity can power a machine or a light. Energy consumption work to be performed, and that is why . Neoclassical economists, with their supply and demand curves and other social/monetary constructs generally disregard that relationship, as they abandoned the real world for social theories, which is why . Those all-too-rare economists challenging neoclassical economics from a scientific perspective focus on energy above all else, and the labor and technological capital ( capital, not the accounting claim on it that capitalists have) that use that energy to turn material resources into useful products and services. They focus on the real economy and actual human benefit, in what I call the anthropocentric economy.

The racist ideology that Hitler’s regime promoted was only a of what other imperial aspirants already had, and and he modeled his genocidal plans for Eastern Europe after what the . Hitler’s ideological crime was using racist ideology to make chosen people inferior. All such ideologies appealed to people’s egos as they elevated their and, with their superiority then self-evident, they could commit their awesome crimes with clear consciences, free of .

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Many assumptions of neoclassical economics have been convincingly falsified by the physical, biological, and social sciences. Some of those assumptions are that people are independently minded rational actors who do not look to what others do (i.e., humans are not herd animals), that the economy can be divorced from the ecosystem that supports it, that money can substitute for , and that economic production can be described without referencing physical work. Neoclassical economics ignores the fact that entropy saps the efficiency of any system, economic or otherwise. Unlike a genuine science, almost no branches of today’s economics, particularly neoclassical economics, base their theories on hypotheses that can be tested and . Today’s mainstream economics resembles a faith more than a science.

One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.

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Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …

Although Enlightenment philosophers acknowledged their debt to Newton (the world’s most towering intellectual of his time and one of history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians), he saw nothing improper with the slave trade and in 1720. When machines began reproducing human labor, the abolition of slavery also began, as it made unskilled labor uneconomical. Slavery, particularly the genocidal forms inflicted by Europe, were viable only for situations in which little professional skill was needed. Slavery worked best in mine and plantation work that used illiterate and often-expendable people. What became the USA was unique in the European age of slavery, in that tobacco operations, unlike sugar plantations, had more seasonal labor demands. Moreover, the environment of southeast North America was conducive to long-lived and fertile slaves, so that they could reproduce. Consequently, what became the USA was a , with its large slave population largely bred, not captured. People born into slavery are easier to keep enslaved than those born free, but they had to be kept illiterate and at low skill levels, or else they might desire freedom and obtain it. Late in the American era of slavery, some slaves were taught to read, but generally only one book, which justified slavery: the Bible. All the way to , apologists for slavery used Biblical passages to justify it. Many also justified antebellum slavery with economic arguments, stating that people took better care of something they owned rather than something they rented.

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The earliest economic school of thought was French, and its practitioners were called . They formed the first and so-far only economic school that rooted economic activity and wealth in energy terms. Physiocrats worked before the science of energy was invented, but they understood that land was the basis of wealth, or more specifically, the crops, timber, metals, and other resources that could be wrested from them via labor (AKA ""). Physiocrats were opportunists who developed economic theories that they planned to profit from, in order to climb into the aristocracy. The first English economist of what later became the was arguably who, like his successors, derived theories that he planned to benefit from. They either tried to join the rising rich classes themselves or performed ideological services on their behalf to curry favor. There was nothing of the disinterested scientist in their work, but they became ideological warriors of the rising capitalist class. It became Karl Marx’s task to name that rising class; he called them the . Preceding the nominal classical economists was , who is called a mercantilist philosopher today, but he was really one of the most honest classical economists in describing the early forces of capitalism, of forcing peasants off the land and enslaving them to market forces.

Everything you never wanted to know about the mites …

No historian has argued that England had a grand plan of industrialization, but the Epochal Event was the culmination of several trends. Although the science of energy had yet to be invented, the obvious advantages of watermills, windmills, and sailing ships were not lost on people, and the control of arable land, forests, low-energy transportation lanes, workforces, and markets was always the road to riches from onward. People knew what they were doing, even if they had little or no long-term perspective.

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