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Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

Protein Synthesis

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where protein synthesis occurs; ..

Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein. Prokaryotic cells have three types of rRNA: 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, and 5S rRNA. Like transfer RNA (tRNA), rRNAs use intrastrand H-bonding between comlementary nucleotide bases to form complex folded structures.

Where does the protein synthesis take ..

Ribosomes function as a workbench for protein synthesis, that is, they receive and translate genetic instructions for the formation of specific proteins. During protein synthesis, mRNA attaches to the 30s subunit and amino acid-carrying transfer RNAs (tRNA) attach to the 50s subunit (see Fig. 1). Protein synthesis is discussed in detail in Unit 6.

In eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis ..

The two subunits combine during protein synthesis to form a complete 70S ribosome about 25nm in diameter. A typical bacterium may have as many as 15,000 ribosomes.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is synthesized by complementary base pairing of ribonucleotides with deoxyribonucleotides to match a portion of one strand of DNA called a gene. Although genes are present on both strands of DNA, only one strand is transcribed for any given gene. Following transcription of genes into mRNA, 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits attach to the mRNA and tRNA inserts the correct amino acids which are subsequently joined to form a polypeptide or a protein through a process called translation.

Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes (With Diagram)

1. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein.
2. Bacterial ribosomes are composed of two subunits with densities of 50S and 30S, as opposed to 60S and 40S in eukaryotic cells.
3. Ribosomes function as a workbench for protein synthesis whereby they receive and translate genetic instructions for the formation of specific proteins.
4. During translation, specific tRNA molecules pick up specific amino acids, transfer those amino acids to the ribosomes, and insert them in their proper place according to the mRNA "message."
5. Many antibiotics bind to either the 30S or the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, interfering with translation and thereby causing faulty protein synthesis.

Many antibiotics alter bacterial ribosomes, interfering with translation and thereby causing faulty protein synthesis. The portion of the ribosome to which the antibiotic binds determines how translation is effected. For example:

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  • Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes (With Diagram) ..

    such as protein synthesis

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    The main protein synthesis ..

  • nucleic acids & protein synthesis notes b1 - Biology …

    Ribosomes function as a workbench for protein synthesis whereby they receive and translate ..

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