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Chapter 11 Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 11 Biology

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a brown animal produced all black offspring

George Bauer; Georgius Agricola (DE) wrote the first book on physical geology, , which is important because of its descriptions of wind and water as powerful geological forces, and for its explanation of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as produced by subterranean vapors and gases heated by the Earth's internal heat. His book (), also published in 1546, is considered his most important contribution to paleontology. This book is not restricted to what we call fossils today: the Latin word meant anything dug out of the ground, and Agricola's book included descriptions of all kinds of minerals, gemstones, and even gallstones, in addition to what we would call fossils now. Agricola's work summed up what the ancient Greek and Roman authors had written about minerals, and included a list of a hundred ancient authors whose works Agricola had consulted -- but Agricola was not afraid to contradict the ancients' opinions if they did not fit with his own experience. His work represented a major advance over previous writings on rocks and minerals in that it classified them, not alphabetically or by their supposed mystical powers, but by simple physical properties: "Thus minerals have differences which we observe by color, taste, odor, place of origin, natural strength and weakness, shape, form, and size." Agricola gave standardized names to various minerals, and not only recorded their appearance but the localities where they could be found. He also noted how the same fossils might have different colors and appearances in different places. Although Agricola's work included no pictures, his descriptions of fossils are often instantly recognizable. In his book () Agricola noted that rocks were laid down in definite layers, or strata, and that these layers occurred in a consistent order and could be traced over a wide area. This observation of Agricola's was one of the first contributions to stratigraphic geology, and one that would become important in understanding the arrangement and origins of the rocks of the Earth.

Explain the color of the offspring? | Yahoo Answers

The most widely accredited explanatory model, the heterozygote superiority overdominance hypothesis, makes the assertion that individuals with trichromatic vision females heterozygous for the LM opsin have a fitness advantage relative to homozygous genotypes, since redgreen chromatic discrimination is useful in foraging for reddish, conspicuous fruits – or young leaves for sociosexual signaling via pelage color or patterns of blood flow or for detecting items of importance in the environment, including sympatric primate species and predators such as tropical felids , . Indeed, we have shown that trichromatic females in a population of wild whitefaced capuchins Cebus capucinus are more accurate in selecting ripe, reddish fruits than are males or dichromatic females . However, that improved accuracy did not translate to a net increase in feeding rate, perhaps because dichromats used behavioral compensation, had improved color perception in certain light environments or increased their reliance on other sensory modalities, such as olfaction –. Similar results for a sympatric population of polymorphic spider monkeys, documenting no difference in fruit feeding rates between dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys, are reported by Hiramatsu etal. , , and by Vogel etal. in their study of a neighboring population of whitefaced capuchins.

Principles of Genetics Chapter 3 problems ..

Propose a hypothesis to explain these ..

Thomas Young (GB) was the first to insist that force can no longer be expressed as a simple mathematical formula of mass times velocity squared and suggested in its place the term for this arithmetical product, adding that some method must be discovered to define the proper relation between work and heat. In the same lecture series he suggested that Dalton’s color blindness was probably due to the absence of the retinal resonator for red (). : The seeds of the theory of specific nerve energies can be found in Thomas Young’s work. This theory, which would blossom within the next few decades, stressed the importance of stimulating specific receptors and nerves for perception. Unfortunately, it is believed that Young never realized the full significance or the implications of his theory. Still, it was Young who may have been the first to explain three primary colors on the basis of visual physiology as opposed to the physics of light. As he put it, trichromatic theory is based “not in the nature of light, but in the constitution of man.”

Francis Bacon, a philosopher and Lord Chancellor of England, popularized the scientific method and thus lead a scientific revolution. One should begin with data, not faith, and then propose a testable hypothesis to explain those facts. This method of reasoning from the particulars to the general is known as induction. He emphasized the importance of experimentation as a way of testing ideas. Bacon also warned that to achieve accurate thinking we must guard against belief systems (Idols) common in or culture. He characterized the idols as: the Idol of the Tribe (community beliefs), the Cave (individual beliefs), the Marketplace (semantic communication problems), and the Theatre (deduction from believed but unproven premises) ().

Propose a hypothesis to explain the data and use the …

Propose a hypothesis to explain the data and use the chi square test to ..

I. Body Organization
A. Define anatomy and physiology
B. Explain the relationship between anatomy and physiology
C. List the characteristics of life
D. List the factors required for maintenance of life
E. Use accepted anatomical terminology to describe body positions, sections, and regions
F. Locate major body cavities
G. Identify membranes
H. Name the major organ systems and list the organs associated with
each
I. Identify vital signs
J. Define homeostasis and summarize its significance
K. Describe the systemic approach of study of the human body and organize the body in this format.
II. Cytology
A. Identify the human cell
B. Identify the structures of the human cell
C. List the functions of principle cell structures
D. Summarize the Cell Theory
E. Explain physiological movements through cell membranes
F. Identify the stages of cell division in human cells
G. Demonstrate proper staining of a human cell
H. Identify prepared cells upon presentation
I. Define common cytological terms
III. Histology
A. Identify human tissues types upon presentation
B. Categorize human tissues
C. Describe the functions of each tissue type
D. List locations of tissue types in the body
E. Explain how glands are classified
F. Define common histological terms
IV. Integumentary System
A. List functions of the skin
B. Identify the regions of the skin
C. Identify organs of the integumentary system upon presentation
D. List functions of the integumentary organs
E. Describe factors involved in skin color
F. Distinguish anomalies and pathologies of skin
G. Define common dermatological terms
V. Skeletal System
A. List functions of the skeletal system
B. Identify bone structures
C. Classify bones according to their shape
D. Summarize bone growth and remodeling
E. Recognize divisions of the skeleton
F. Identify bones of the skeleton
G. Identify foramina and processes of bones
H. Distinguish anomalies and pathologies of bone
I. Describe the effects of hormones that act on bone
J. Classify joints based on structure and movement
K. Identify joints
L. Distinguish pathologies of joints
VI. Muscular System
A. List the functions of the muscular system
B. Identify structures within skeletal muscle
C. Describe how muscles structure is organized
D. Identify the muscle organs of the human body upon presentation
E. Summarize the events of muscular contraction
F. Explain how energy is supplied to muscle
G. Summarize muscle fatigue
H. Explain the effect of oxygen on muscle
I. Describe how exercise affects skeletal muscle
J. Identify the three types of muscle
K. Summarize muscle group function
L. Define common terms associated with muscle and kinesiology
M. Distinguish common muscle pathologies
VII. Nervous System
A. List the functions of the nervous system
B. Describe how nervous tissue is organized
C. Identify the types of nerve cells
D. List functions of nerve cells
E. Identify structures within nerve cells
F. Explain how an injured nerve may regenerate
G. Explain nerve cell potentials
H. Summarize the events at a synapse
I. Distinguish between types of post synaptic potentials
J. List factors that affect post synaptic potentials
K. List the components of the reflex arc
L. Summarize the importance of nerve pathway organization
M. Identify the meninges
N. Distinguish between CNS and PNS
O. Identify the organs of the CNS
P. Identify the major parts of the brain and spinal cord
Q. List the functions of the organs of the CNS
R. Distinguish association areas of the cerebral cortex
S. Distinguish between ANS and SNS
T. Summarize the functions of the ANS
U. Distinguish between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS
V. Identify the nerves of the PNS
W. Distinguish common nervous system pathologies
X. Identify special senses
VIII. Endocrine System
A. Identify organs that secrete hormones
B. Classify glands based on structure
D. Classify glands based on function
E. Explain hormone pathways and regulation
IX. Cardiovascular System
A. Identify the components of blood upon presentation
B. List the functions of each type of blood cell
C. Explain control of red blood cell production
D. List the functions of blood plasma
E. Summarize blood typing procedures
F. Summarize the events in coagulation
G. Identify the structures of the heart
H. Describe the pathway of blood through the heart chambers
I. Explain heart contraction
J. Summarize the events of the conduction system
K. Identify common physiological tests
L. Perform vital signs
M. Identify the types of blood vessels
N. Locate major arteries and veins of the body
O. List functions of each type of blood vessel
P. Distinguish common heart, blood, and vessel anomalies using standard
medical reports
Q. Define terminology used in the medical community relating to
cardiovascular care
X. Digestive System
A. Identify digestive organs, their regions, and structures upon
presentation
B. Distinguish between alimentary canal organs and accessory organs
C. List and explain the functions of the digestive system
D. List the functions of each digestive organ
E. Explain how the contents of the alimentary canal are moved
F. Describe common pathologies of digestive organs
G. Summarize factors that affect digestion
XI. Respiratory System
A. Identify respiratory organs, their regions, and structures upon
presentation
B. Summarize the events in inspiration and expiration
C. List and explain the functions of the respiratory system
E. Define common respiratory ailments
F. List nonrespiratory air movements
G. Classify respiratory organs as upper or lower tract
H. Explain the exchange of gases at the alveolar level
I. Distinguish common breathing anomalies using standard medical
reports
J. Identify clinical pathologies of the respiratory system
XII. Urinary System
A. Identify urinary organs, their regions, and structures upon
presentation
B. List and explain the functions of the urinary system
C. Trace the pathway of blood through the kidney
D. Explain the events of urine formation
E. Summarize the events of micturition
F. Identify common anomalies of the urinary system
XIII. Reproductive System
A. Identify reproductive organs, their regions, and structures upon
presentation
B. List the functions of each reproductive organ
C. Identify analogous organs of both gender systems
D. Explain how hormones control sexual characteristics
E. Trace the complete path of sperm cells
F. Trace the complete path of an egg through fertilization and
pregnancy
G. Identify common STDs
H. Lymphatic System
I. Identify lymphatic organs
J. List the functions of the lymphatic system

The leading explanatory model for the widespread occurrence of color vision polymorphism in Neotropical primates is the heterozygote superiority hypothesis, which postulates that trichromatic individuals have a fitness advantage over other phenotypes because redgreen chromatic discrimination is useful for foraging, social signaling, or predator detection. Alternative explanatory models predict that dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes are each suited to distinct tasks. To conclusively evaluate these models, one must determine whether proposed visual advantages translate into differential fitness of trichromatic and dichromatic individuals. We tested whether color vision phenotype is a significant predictor of female fitness in a population of wild capuchins, using longterm 26 years survival and fertility data. We found no advantage to trichromats over dichromats for three fitness measures fertility rates, offspring survival and maternal survival. This finding suggests that a selective mechanism other than heterozygote advantage is operating to maintain the color vision polymorphism. We propose that attention be directed to field testing the alternative mechanisms of balancing selection proposed to explain opsin polymorphism nichedivergence, frequencydependence and mutual benefit of association. This is the first indepth, longterm study examining the effects of color vision variation on survival and reproductive success in a naturallyoccurring population of primates.

Drosophila melanogaster that affect body color, ..
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  • BIOL 226 - CHAPTER 3 Flashcards | Quizlet

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