Maximal Protein Synthesis & Resistance Trained Athletes!
Additionally, during the off-season, adequate protein must be available to provide amino acids for protein synthesis.
Microbial degradation and resynthesis of proteins …
More recently, there has been interest in determining the effectsof pre- and post-exercise carbohydrate and protein feedings onhormonal responses to exercise (; ; ; ; ). Ingestion of protein with carbohydrate has been reportedto increase insulin and/or growth hormone levels to a greater degreethan ingestion of carbohydrate alone (; ). Consequently, ingesting protein and carbohydrate prior toexercise may serve as an anti-catabolic nutritional strategy(). Further, ingestingcarbohydrate and protein following exercise may promote a moreanabolic hormonal profile, glycogen resynthesis, and/or hastenrecovery from intense exercise (; ).Over time these alterations may allow an athlete to tolerate trainingto a greater degree and/or promote greater training adaptations, butthe evidence is not yet clear.
There have only been two comprehensive studies , that have investigated muscle glycogen synthesis after resistance exercise. Pascoe et al reported a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen levels after resistance training. Robergs et al reported muscle glycogen degradations of about 38% after resistance training. Muscle glycogen resynthesis after resistance exercise (weight lifting) is considerably faster than prolonged aerobic exercise . Eccentric exercise has been associated with ultrastructural muscle damage, leakage of intracellular enzymes, delayed onset muscle soreness , AND reduced rates of glycogen resynthesis ,. Some evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory cells which enter muscle tissue in response to the eccentrically induced damage compete with the muscle cells for available plasma glucose . In addition, these inflammatory cells may produce a metabolic factor that shifts muscle metabolism towards glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown) and away from glycogen synthesis. It is speculated that the damage resulting form eccentric exercise interfered with the insertion of the GLUT 4 protein into the plasma membrane and increased the rate of degradation or the rate of production of this glucose transporter protein . The evidence sited above shows that eccentric contractions and subsequent muscle damage impair muscle glycogen resynthesis. I would recommend more explosive, concentric type of movements to enhance glycogen resynthesis after resistance training. This would especially be necessary while carbohydrate loading/depleting (before a bodybuilding competition for example). The recruitment of more fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibers may also enhance glycogen synthesis .
as well as additional protein resynthesis within the muscles
However, Mer+ cells,which are resistant to MNNG, rapidly resynthesize new acceptor protein,and the activity returns to the basal level in ≈90 min.
The best way athletes can quickly replenish muscle glycogen is to consume 1.5 g of high-glycemic carbohydrates per 1 kg of body weight immediately after exercise. If the athlete delays carbohydrate consumption by two hours or more, glycogen synthesis will be reduced by 50%.5 Another way to restore glycogen is to consume 0.6 to 1 g of high-glycemic carbohydrate per 1 kg of body weight right after exercise and again every two hours for four to six hours.6,7 In addition, ingesting protein along with carbohydrate can increase muscle glycogen stores when insufficient total carbohydrate is consumed or when carbohydrate intake is consumed in intervals spread out by more than one hour.1
Protein glycogen resynthesis - Cool thesis titles
6. Jentjens RL, van Loon LJ, Mann CH, Wagenmakers AJ, Jeukendrup AE. Addition of protein and amino acids to carbohydrates does not enhance postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(2):839-846.
1. Ivy JL. Regulation of muscle glycogen repletion, muscle protein synthesis and repair following exercise. J Sports Sci Med. 2004;3:131-138.
ARTICLES | Journal of Applied Physiology
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia ..
Methylation ofsome bases can occur during deprotection with thiophenol in methyl phosphoramidite-basedsyntheses.
26/08/1998 · SpringerLink
BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Amino acids and proteins
grams of a complete protein—is enough to maximally stimulate protein synthesis
14/01/2018 · Amino acids and proteins
Now on to the most critical part of muscle glycogen resynthesis. How do you increase muscle glycogen levels? There are several supplements and techniques to allow for increased glycogen storage. One way is taking a glutamine supplement. Glutamine causes a significant increase in muscle glycogen deposition through an unknown mechanism. According to one university study, a physiological concentration of glutamine stimulates glycogen synthesis from glucose and gluconeogenic pre-cursors . So glutamine along with your post workout high glycemic index carbohydrates may increase glutamine and glycogen in the muscle. I would recommend at least 5-10 grams of glutamine at this time to allow for glycogen recompensation. In another research study on humans, an intravenous drip of glutamine, raising blood levels about 70% above normal, increased muscle glycogen . Some top quality glutamine supplements I would recommend are Cytovol by EAS and SuperGlu by GURUetc. There is also a doctor named Elias Meezan who is in the process of patenting artificial primers for glycogen synthesis. Properties of these compounds enable them to readily penetrate cells chemically intact so that they have access to glycogenin and glycogen synthase. The unique structural and metabolic properties of these compounds make it highly likely that in addition to priming glycogen synthesis on their own, they could act synergistically with other drugs to stimulate glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis. This is real exciting news for bodybuilders and diabetics as well. Next, there are those glucose disposing agents or so called "insulin mimickers" such as vanadyl sulfate, chromium picolinate, , and phenformin. Alpha lipoic acid also shows potential as a glucose disposing agent. In Germany, it is used as a treatment for peripheral neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes. It speeds the removal of glucose from the blood stream, at least partly by enhancing insulin function and reducing insulin resistance. The richest food source of alpha lipoic acid is red meat. Vanadyl sulfate helps to trigger glucose transporters much like insulin, obviously meaning increased glycogen stores and better assimilation of protein by muscle tissue. Higher glycogen stores mean better "pumps" in the gym and more energy during workouts. Chromium picolinate helps insulin function by regulating glucose tolerance factor which helps insulin bind to muscle cells. This may especially be important to insulin resistant bodybuilders. , which is sold as in America, is an extremely powerful glucose disposing agent used to manage diabetes. Phenformin is similar but causes the negative side effect of lactic acidosis. is a prescription item. Phenformin can be found in Mexico where it is sold under the brand name of Debeone. Doing explosive concentric movements and limiting eccentric type of training (i.e. long negatives) may also increase glycogen stores. Carbohydrate depleting and then reloading (glycogen supercompensation) may allow you to increase glycogen stores two fold, as mentioned above.
Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis and Bodybuilding by …
Interest in drugs that covalently modify their target is driven by the desire for enhanced efficacy that can result from the silencing of enzymatic activity until protein resynthesis can occur, along with the potential for increased selectivity by targeting uniquely positioned nucleophilic residues in the protein. However, covalent approaches carry additional risk for toxicities or hypersensitivity reactions that can result from covalent modification of unintended targets. Here we describe methods for measuring the reactivity of covalent reactive groups (CRGs) with a biologically relevant nucleophile, glutathione (GSH), along with kinetic data for a broad array of electrophiles. We also describe a computational method for predicting electrophilic reactivity, which taken together can be applied to the prospective design of thiol-reactive covalent inhibitors.
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