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Many mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA

1940s and 1950s ATP is formed in cell respiration in mitochondria and photosynthesis in chloroplasts of plants

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Viral Proteins Mitochondrial Membrane Permeabilization

Initially, the membrane transport protein (also called a carrier)is in its closed configuration which does not allow substrates or othermolecules to enter or leave the cell.

1963  DNA is directly visualized in first chloroplasts and then mitochondria, from the .

Though the primary function of mitochondria is to produce energy, they also play an important role in the metabolism and synthesis of certain other substances in the body.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to the electron-transport chain () that consists of proteins located in the mitochondrial inner membrane.

As electrons are transferred along the electron-transport chain, the energy released is used to pump protons (H+) from the mitochondrial matrix into the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

AAC is a membrane protein that acts like a revolving door - transporting ADP into mitochondria (to be converted to ATP) and ATP out of mitochondria and into the cytoplasm (Wang and Tajkhorshid 2008).

When are ribosomes used in the process of protein synthesis

Mitochondria are highly unusual--they contain their own genetic material and protein-making machinery enwrapped in a double membrane.

Further evidence to support the endosymbiont theory is that mitochondria have their own DNA, in the form of a circular chromosome that is topologically like bacterial chromosomes. The sequence of the mitochondrial DNA most closely resembles the sequences of genes in alpha-proteobacteria. Mitochondrial ribosomes are structurally more similar to bacterial ribosomes than to eukaryotic ribosomes. Mitochondria reproduce in eukaryotic cells by fission, again resembling bacterial cell division.

The location of the electron transport chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and the pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, makes sense in light of the endosymbiont theory for the origin of mitochondria. These locations correspond to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the aerobic bacterial endosymbiont, most likely an alpha-proteobacterium, that was the ancestor of mitochondria. The outer mitochondrial membrane derived from the endosomal membrane that originally engulfed the endosymbiont.

Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum Protein synthesis
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  • Ribosomes - Protein Synthesis - Cronodon

    Protein Synthesis

  • Understanding Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis - …

    16/01/2018 · There are four organelles found in eukaryotic cells that aid in the synthesis of proteins

  • Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

    They have their own machinery for protein synthesis and reproduce by the process of fission ..

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Chloroplasts and Mitochondria-1. - Oregon State …

Fermentation reactions occur in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate does not enter the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells.

10/01/2018 · Chloroplasts and Mitochondria-1

In eukaryotic cells, glycolysis and fermentation reactions occur in the cytoplasm. The remaining pathways, starting with pyruvate oxidation, occur in the mitochondria. Most eukaryotic mitochondria can use only oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix and is oxidized to acetyl-CoA, and then to CO2 via the citric acid cycle. The electron transport chain and ATP synthase are located on the mitochondrial inner membrane.

of mitochondria protein is controlled ..

I have a question on the formation of lactate. When I compare the two lactate molecules with the 2 pyruvates, there are 4 additional H atoms. So, does each NADH lose 2 Hydrogen atoms, or is there another source of H atoms?

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