Which are the 6 steps involved in protein synthesis? - …
Protein synthesis is a highly complex and an elaborate process and involves the ..
Initiation Of Protein Synthesis Involves GTP ..
TRAP1 role in cell death protection, beyond thedirect control of PTP opening in concert with HSP90 and CypD evenfurther characterized by other studies (,),may involve some other more general homeostatic mechanisms, linkingthe control of proteostasis inside mitochondria to the activationof extramitochondrial survival pathways. In this context, we haveshown that TRAP1 function could be relevant in crosstalk betweenmitochondria and other subcellular compartments (). Accordingly, the HSP90 mitochondrialnetwork contributes to the folding of mitochondrial proteins;however, when this process is dysregulated, a series ofcytoprotective/adaptive cellular responses occurs, includingactivation of autophagy, inter-organelle stress response andinduction of gene expression modifications, that lead to theimpairment of tumor cell bioenergetics (). These processes may further increasethe apoptotic threshold in tumor cells undergoing mitochondriotoxicstress, ending up with better survival. This adaptive model ishighly suitable to enhance the protein buffering capacity oftransformed cells, which are especially at risk of proteotoxicstress for their high biosynthetic requirements.
TRAP1 is involved in proteinhomeostasis. TRAP1 regulates protein expression by couplingsynthesis and ubiquitin-dependent degradation, through a directbinding to both ribosomes and the proteasomal particle TBP7, atER-mitochondria interface. ER, endoplasmic reticulum; M,mitochondrion; C, cytosol.
The process of protein synthesis involves initiation, ..
Recently our group unraveled that this regulatorymechanism is quite complex and involves the modulation ofphosphorylation levels, either in basal conditions or under stress,of the translation factor eIF2α, whose phosphorylation results inthe attenuation of cap-dependent translation, while favoring theIRES-dependent one. TRAP1 slows the rate of protein synthesisthrough the eIF2α pathway, favoring the activation of GCN2 and PERKkinases, with consequent phosphorylation of eIF2α and attenuationof cap-dependent translation. This enhances the synthesis ofselective stress-responsive proteins, as the transcription factorATF4 and its downstream effectors BiP/Grp78 and the cystineantiporter system xCT, thereby providing protection toward ERstress, oxidative damage and nutrient deprivation. Accordingly,TRAP1 silencing sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by novelantitumoral drugs that inhibit cap-dependent translation, such asRibavirin or 4EGI-1, and reduces the ability of cells to migratethrough the pores of transwell filters in the presence of thesedrugs (). The relevance ofthese findings is supported by evidence that translational controlis a crucial component of cancer development and progression,involved in the regulation of both global protein synthesis andtranslation of selective mRNAs species that promote tumor cellsurvival, angiogenesis, transformation, invasion and metastasis().
Steps Involved in Mechanism of Protein Synthesis
Protein synthesis - Biology-Online Dictionary
Protein synthesis | Define Protein synthesis at …
3 Protein synthesis involves transcription and translation Figure 326 B from BIOLOGY 043 at CUNY Queens
Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation
15/01/2018 · Answer to Initiation of protein synthesis involves GTP hydrolysis associated with what step
A Science Odyssey: You Try It: DNA Workshop - PBS
The process of translation, or protein synthesis, involves the decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide product.
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