Milton Friedman, who created the Permanent Income Hypothesis – from
Therefore, it would appear that the relative income hypothesis does not exist over time and does not exist within Britain.
The permanent income hypothesis has experienced various challenges.
As scientists know with mammals, although , it comes with a great energetic cost. As with plants, an animal can spend its on consumption (metabolism) or investment (growth). An intriguing hypothesis is that growing large was part of an energy strategy, as the benefits of size (reduced risk of predation, ease of conserving body heat and consequently less need for a high metabolism, ability to access new food sources, such as foliage high above the ground) outweighed their costs (energy devoted to growth instead of metabolism, the need to constantly feed). Their size and the warm climate meant that large dinosaurs did not need as intense internal energy generation as mammals do, for instance, and dinosaurs may have been , with internal energy regulation greater than , but not as great as (mammals and birds).
Meanwhile, is crashing. As I have performed my studies since 1990, including numerous scientific topics, one issue became clear: biologists and climate scientists are in a panic regarding what is happening. Biologists know that they are living through the , which is caused by humans and is happening before their eyes. Climate scientists are watching humans alter the atmosphere to the extent that may be caused within a geologic timescale’s blink of an eye. It took more than two billion years for , and the , which took many millions of years to transpire. But humanity may end up altering the atmosphere so much in a mere few hundred years to actually turn Earth from an into a Greenhouse Earth, create and events, or myriad other potential outcomes. Industrial humanity is engaging in a chemistry and physics experiment with our home planet, and hardly anybody seems to notice or care. That frightens climate scientists, and biologists know that those potential geophysical events can make the current extinction event even more pronounced, and humans may achieve a mass extinction that exceeds even the , and do it quicker than every previous extinction event other than that . For one of many ominous trends, the oceans are being acidified by the increasingly acidic rain, which is . Peter Ward’s is not so farfetched, as he churns out grim books with his emeritus years not far off, but humans are the current agents of destruction, not Mother Earth and her other species. On , humanity is peering into the abyss.
Keynes' Absolute Income Hypothesis and Kuznets Paradox - Munich.
Were the dramatic changes in a result of cooked food, or was Turkana Boy as his species became hunters instead of hunted, and the stone tools softened up the meat and plant foods so that he did not need to chew as much? Wrangham co-authored a that began with . It concluded that food processing, cooking in particular, accounted for the effect. Cooked food versus raw food and the number of neurons that can be supported in a brain has been . The primary reason why Wrangham’s hypothesis was initially dismissed was that archeological evidence for fires that long ago is almost nonexistent. When was published, the earliest evidence with wide acceptance only supported fires , where Israel is today, which is more than a million years after Wrangham’s estimated timeframe. Wrangham did what all bold scientists do: he made falsifiable predictions. If it turned out that no evidence of early fires was ever found, his hypothesis could begin looking shaky.
The majority of studies uses absolute and relative income together as explanatory factors in utility models and finds absolute income to have a positive and significant effect on utility (happiness).
Relative income hypothesis - Wikipedia
To briefly revisit , to that speculation above, scientists ideally want persuasive evidence that humans drove and to extinction. They want Acheulean or later technological artifacts associated with kills of those species. All that scientists have found for so far are some teeth and jawbones. Although such deductive reasoning is sound, the fossil and artifactual record is so thin that such evidence will probably never be adduced, even if it was a common event 150-100 kya. survived for nine million years and disappeared around when more lethal humans arrived, and a , soon after anatomically modern humans arrived in the vicinity. Is that a coincidence? There is genetic evidence that behaviorally modern humans interbred with , , and perhaps , and they all went extinct soon after those behaviorally modern humans arrived. That they interbred put to bed the hypotheses that they went extinct before arrived on the scene. If they went extinct after behaviorally modern humans arrived, as the genetic evidence clearly tells us, the implications are obvious, and any extinction hypothesis that invokes climate change or some other natural catastrophe has some high hurdles to overcome. Those events were probably early salvos of the .
Some scientists treat every proboscidean extinction as a unique mystery, unrelated to other proboscidean extinctions, and climate and resulting vegetation changes are hypothesized as agents of extinction (or other causes invoked), when the most probable cause stares at them each morning in the mirror. The devil in the details, but regarding the megafauna extinctions, some specialists cannot seem to discern a very clear pattern. Scientists, because they are human, have an inherent conflict of interest when attributing such catastrophes to non-human causes. During the remainder of this essay, it will become evident that there is a human penchant for absolving one’s in-group of responsibility for catastrophes and crimes committed against the out-group, and , scientists, and other professionals regularly engage in such interest-conflicted acts, whether they were defending their species, race, gender, nation, class, ideology, ethnicity, or profession. That in-group/out-group difference in treatment has a long history and probably goes back to the beginnings of territorial social animals.
The relative income hypothesis - ScienceDirect
The Relative Income Hypothesis - Research Papers in …
For the full explanation of Milton Friedman’s permanent income hypothesis and research on the topic:
Absolute income hypothesis - Wikipedia
Contents Keynes' Consumption Function The Absolute Income Hypothesis The Consumption Puzzle The Drift.
Absolute, Relative and Permanent Income Hypothesis …
Studies of the relative income hypothesis find positive and negative effects of relative income
What Is the Difference Between Relative Income & Absolute ..
Ornithischians started slowly and began to become common in the late Jurassic, just when the greatest biological innovation in the past 300 million years began: the appearance of , which first bloomed about 160 mya. Until that time, plant survival strategies included how to avoid being eaten by animals, whether it was bark, height, poisonous foliage, etc. Flowering plants adopted a different strategy by laying out a banquet for animals. The primary benefit for plants was , as well as attracting animals that did not seek to eat the plants and even ended up protecting them. The advantage for animals was an easily acquired and tasty meal. It was the greatest direct symbiosis between plants and animals ever, other than plants providing the oxygen that animals breathe, which is inadvertent. The two primary aspirations that seed plants achieve for successful reproduction are becoming fertilized via pollination and placing seeds where they can become viable offspring (and feces fertilizer could only help). Flowering plants, also called angiosperms, did not invent animal assistance from whole cloth. Some Jurassic insects have been found in association with (conifer) cones, and were probably doing the work that the wind previously performed. Like the , attracting animals to plants, to eat the pollen and nectar, was like a reproductive enzyme: animals carried the key to the lock to initiate reproduction. Other animals ate the fruit and thereby spread the seeds. That relationship did not become significant until the mid-Cretaceous. Angiosperms mature faster and produce more seeds than gymnosperms do. By the Cretaceous’s end, angiosperms dominated tropical biomes where ferns and cycads used to thrive, and they pushed conifers to the high latitudes, just as they have today. That tropical dominance is probably related to the insect population, which prefers warm climates. Angiosperms became Earth’s dominant plants after the and comprise more than 90% of plant species today.
The difference between relative income ..
Sauropods seem to have . Until relatively recently, animals as agents of ecosystem change and maintenance was a marginal idea. But today, is thought to be a seminal geophysical event in the Cambrian, and those huge sauropods probably had an ecosystem impact like what elephants have today in Africa. Elephants today break up woods as they feed, as they knock over trees and uproot them. That damage transforms the biome and provides opportunities for other kinds of herbivores and their predators. Elephants also and are considered , which have an outsized impact on their environment. Today, there is a “” to the overkill hypothesis regarding megafauna extinctions soon after humans appeared; such people minimize the impact of humans (their position has an inherent conflict of interest, as those ) and attribute the extinction of elephants of the Western Hemisphere (, ) to climate change and resulting changes in vegetation. If the current situation with African elephants is relevant, it is likelier that those vegetation changes were a of elephant extinction, not a cause. Elephant extinctions would have affected many other kinds of plants and animals, and could have precipitated . Similarly, those huge sauropods would not just have nibbled at vegetation and been relatively harmless browsers, but their vast bulk would have been ideal for pushing over trees to get at their foliage and other devastations of trees in particular, which would have dramatically impacted biomes. Giant dinosaurs probably had keystone species impacts on their environments, particularly the vegetation. Dinosaurs were not the only huge organisms in those days. The appeared in the Jurassic, and would have been immune to dinosaur browsing when they grew large enough. Below is an artist's conception of a typical Jurassic landscape (just as an allosaur and stegosaur are about to cordially interact). (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
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