Responsive hydrogel layers - From synthesis to applications
Responsive Thin Hydrogel Layers from Photo-Cross …
Responsive hydrogel layers—from synthesis to applications.
An often applied method for the synthesis of hydrogels, especially for applications in medicine and pharmaceutics, is based on radiochemistry. The hydrogel can be formed by irradiation of monomers, polymers dissolved in water, or polymers in dry state. Electrons of different energies or γ-rays are used as high-energy radiation. The possibilities of the radiation-chemical synthesis of smart hydrogels are discussed on different examples. The technique is applied to bulk polymers, to micro- and nanogel particles, and to patterned layers on different materials. The basics and fundamentals of irradiation techniques as well as the equipment are described.
In general, nanoparticles tend to aggregate through hydrophobic interactions or attractive van der Waals forces in an effort to minimize the surface energy. In the blood stream, such aggregates can trigger opsonization, the process by which a particle becomes covered with opsonin proteins, thereby making it more visible to the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), such as RES. The phagocytic mechanisms render nanoparticles ineffective as theranostic devices by removing them from the bloodstream . Therefore, evading uptake by RES and increasing the blood circulation half-life are major challenges for developing theranostic nanoparticles in clinical applications . Several methods of camouflaging nanoparticles have been developed to yield 'stealth' nanoparticles, which are invisible to MPS. These approaches interfere with the binding of opsonin proteins to the nanoparticle surfaces in support of a long circulation half-life, thereby increasing the chance that the nanoparticles can effectively target tumor sites. In order to impart stealth properties to the nanoparticles, one of the most promising molecules is the FDA-approved PEG. Natural or synthetic polymers, small organic molecules, and core-shell structures have also been utilized for nanoparticle surface coatings. However, a high surface coverage can decrease binding to and uptake by target cancer cells. This section describes the use of several coating molecules as shielding materials. The optimal surface densities of the coating materials and the targeted ligands will be discussed.
Responsive hydrogel layers—From synthesis to applications
Here, recent developments on chemically cross-linked hydrogel layers with respect to synthesis, characterization, and application are highlighted.">
The structural features and swelling properties of responsive hydrogel films based on poly(-isopropylacrylamide) copolymers with a photo-cross-linkable benzophenone unit were investigated by surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide mode spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The temperature-dependent swelling behavior was studied with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrogel polymers containing either sodium methacrylate or methacrylic acid moieties. In the sodium methacrylate system, a refractive index gradient was found that was not present in the free acid gel. This refractive index gradient, perpendicular to the swollen hydrogel film surface, could be analyzed in detail by application of the reversed Wentzel−Kramers−Brillouin (WKB) approximation to the optical data. This novel approach to analyzing thin-film gradients with the WKB method presents a powerful tool for the characterization of inhomogeneous hydrogels, which would otherwise be very difficult to capture experimentally. In AFM images of the hydrogel layers, a macroscopic pore structure was observed that depended on the polymer composition as well as on the swelling history. This pore structure apparently prevents the often-observed skin barrier effect and leads to a quickly responding hydrogel.
hydrogel layers - from synthesis to applications ..
Responsive polymer networks are interesting materials for a variety of different applications due to the fact that they can perform a large volume transition. However, the swelling transition is a diffusion limited process. Thus, the decrease of the feature size (e.g., in thin layers) is an appropriate way to create structures with reasonable response time. The possibility to pattern responsive polymer networks makes them useful for application in microsystem technology as well as in biomedicine. The transition behavior of these films showed similar trends to those of the corresponding linear polymers whereas confinement effects have been found for thin hydrogel layers. The ability to optimize the integration of these polymers is critical for the fabrication and development of platforms that harness the unique abilities of responsive polymer networks. Here, recent developments on chemically cross-linked hydrogel layers with respect to synthesis, characterization, and application are highlighted.
Li . designed folate receptor-targeted hollow gold nanospheres carrying siRNA recognizing NF-B, a transcription factor related to the expression of genes involved in tumor development [,]. In this case, the photothermal effects of gold nanospheres were utilized to regulate drug release and as a therapeutic tool. Core/shell-structured hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS, 40 nm) were initially synthesized, consisting of a thin gold wall with a hollow interior, and the structures displayed strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) tunability in the near-IR region [-]. Thiol-modified siRNA duplexes directed toward the NF-B p65 subunit were then introduced to the surface of HAuNS. Folates were coupled to the nanoparticles through a thioctic acid-terminated PEG linker to produce F-PEG-HAuNS-siRNA (Figure A and B). Irradiation with a pulsed near-IR laser (800 nm) altered the absorption spectra of the HAuNS-siRNA solutions significantly, indicating a loss in the structural integrity and triggering the dissociation of siRNA from HAuNS, when demonstrated by TEM and fluorescence microscopy images. This mode of action is termed 'photothermal transfection'. Intravenous injection of the nanospheres into HeLa xenografts resulted in the distinct downregulation of the NF-B p65 subunit only for the folate-conjugated nanosphere treatment combined with near-IR laser irradiation, suggesting that selective targeting and endolysosomal escape of the nanoparticles was activated by near-IR irradiation at the tumor site. tests, in which therapy was combined with administration of irinotecan, a chemotherapeutic agent that increases sensitivity to NF-B inhibition, yielded a substantially enhanced apoptotic response (Figure C). micro-positron emission tomography (PET))/computed tomography (CT) imaging also confirmed the folate-mediated tumor-targeted theranostic properties of the nanostructures (Figure D). Although significant uptake of the nanoparticles was observed in the liver, spleen, kidney, and lung, no significant downregulation of p65 in these organs was observed as a result of the tumor-selective near-IR irradiation.
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Photo-Cross-Linkable PNIPAAm Copolymers. 1. Synthesis …
Synthesis of Hydrogels | SpringerLink
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temperature-responsive hydrogel layers.
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