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The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected already in 1939.

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What Is the Role of RNA in Protein Synthesis?

plays a huge role in protein synthesis and translation. Its job is to translate the message within the nucleotide sequence of mRNA to a specific sequence. These sequences are joined together to form a protein. Transfer RNA is shaped like a clover leaf with three loops. It contains an amino acid attachment site on one end and a special section in the middle loop called the anticodon site. The anticodon recognizes a specific area on a mRNA called a .

steps of protein synthesis easily explained, from rna to peptide chains accelerate ..

Other potential mechanisms that may play a role incancers with RP mutations and in the ribosomopathies are related tothe hypothesis that defective maturation of ribosomal subunitscould delay translation of certain mRNAs or that malfunction ofaccumulated ribosomal precursors may cause aberrant translation(reduced fidelity). It may involve differential translation ofspecific mRNA transcripts or the use of alternative translationinitiation sites. Both quantitative variations in actual ribosomenumbers and qualitative alterations such as lack of rRNAmodifications of the ribosomes have been reported. A first exampleis X-linked DKC, caused by a mutation in , which encodesdyskerin (). Nucleolar dyskerinassociates with a specific group of snoRNPs known as H/ACA, whichfunction in the pseudo-uridylation of rRNAs, but mutant DKC1 altersthe rRNA pseudo-uridylation pattern of ribosomes reducingtranslation of some mRNAs (). Asecond example is fibrillarin, a nucleolar rRNA methyl-transferase(). p53 represses fibrillarinby direct protein-protein interaction and high levels offibrillarin are accompanied by abnormal rRNA methylation patternsand impaired translational fidelity (). In this setting, p53 acts as asurveyor of protein synthesis by its ability to regulate ribosomeactivity (). The translationfidelity model has gathered additional experimental evidence. TheRPL10 Arg98Ser mutant, the most commonly identified ribosomalmutation in acute T-ALL, was functionally evaluated in yeast(). The mutation leads to afailure to produce 60S followed by degradation of the defectiveribosomes (). The 60S subunitshortage puts pressure on cells to select for suppressors of theribosome biogenesis defect, allowing the yeast cells to boostribosome production to sustain cell proliferation (). However, the consequence of thisbypass is synthesis of defective ribosomes that wreak havoc in themRNA translation process ().Whether similar mechanisms exist in humans and how they functionremains to be investigated. It is interesting to note that some ofthe RPs mutated in cancer including RPL5, RPL10 and RPS20 are knownto bind directly to mRNAs, moreover, two of them RPL5 and RPL10,have a preferential association with monosomes reflecting ribosomeheterogeneity ().

The Role of RNA in Protein Synthesis 1.

of protein synthesis easily explained, from rna to peptide chains ..

The Lab also features a series of animated videos that explain RNA,protein synthesis, and RNA’s role in fighting viruses. Once players finish the NOVA RNA Lab, theywill be directed to the Eterna website where, if they become good enough, they canhelp researchers discover new ways to fold RNA. Their discoveries havereal-world implications, as Eterna crowdsources RNA designs, helping scientistsbetter understand gene expression, disease prevention, and more. The NOVA RNALab supports creative visual problem solving and uses NOVA’s one-of-a-kindstorytelling techniques to maximize the potential for learning throughfirsthand involvement in science.

The many levels (trials) of the RNA Lab game getprogressively more complex as users work through them. First, players learn the basics in astep-by-step tutorial. As users progressthrough the trials, they will learn via puzzles and videos about proteinsynthesis, RNA function, and the role that RNA plays in fighting viruses. [1] (Technical requirements: The RNA Game requires the . Recommended browsers include the latest version of Chrome, Firefox, and Safari. For Internet Explorer, use version 9 or above.)

protein synthesis occurs in cellular ..

The Lab also features a series of animated videos that explain RNA, protein synthesis, and RNA’s role ..

Another possibility to explain how defects in thesynthesis or function of the ribosomes could affect the pattern oftranslated mRNAs and possibly lead to cell transformation involveschanges in the mRNA translation patterns. A study in mice revealeda selective reduction in the translation of Hox mRNAs followingdeletion of (),and as another example serves the transcription factor GATA1 beingcritical for normal erythropoiesis. Its mRNA is inefficientlytranslated in DBA patients (), while mutated in other DBA cases(). In an interesting twist,GATA1 binding to RP gene promoters is important to sustain highlevels of RPs in erythroid cells (). A more specific hypothesis thathas been discussed is that a ribosome deficit may impact on thetranslation patterns favoring the synthesis of oncogenic proteinsby altering the ratio between translation initiation and elongation(). Related to this is thehypothesis that a reduced number of ribosomes may cause a selectivereduced translation of mRNAs that are difficult to translate whileother mRNA could become increasingly translated. Indeed, a decreasein p53 mRNA translation has been suspected to be of relevanceduring tumor development ().Reduced mRNA translation may also result in a shortage of DNAreplication and repair factors as well as histones that in turn mayresult in genome instability. Ribosome profiling will in thecontexts of pre-existing ribosome biogenesis or mature ribosomedefects become an essential tool to study changes in translationpatterns and finding novel targets for intervention ().

This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores a mechanism called RNA interference (RNAi), which has evolved in cells to prevent viral infection. Cells must carefully regulate the synthesis of proteins from genes to ensure normal development and to prevent disease. Having accidentally discovered this mechanism while experimenting with color in petunias, scientists now know that RNAi serves a critical role in this process.

A specialized protein called an enzyme ..
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  • The RNA copy of the protein genetic information ..

    Pr-Ro

  • 02/01/2018 · RNA explained

    Biology

  • What is Protein Synthesis? (with pictures) - wiseGEEK

    RNA polymerase enzymes are essential to life and are found in all organisms and many viruses

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