The Aztecs and The Roman Empire
the fall of the Roman Empire
Second Empire, Early "Romania," 284 AD-610 AD
Meanwhile, Romania, with institutional continuity, commercial culture, and education, began to recover its strength, despite some severe blows continuing to fall.
But even as Christians, many Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, and Icelanders were still looking for a good fight; and to find it they traveled to the greatest and most famous Christian monarch: The Emperor of the Romans.
Third Empire, Middle "Romania," Early "Byzantium," 610 AD-1059 AD
The Italians are now gone (there being the Schism and all), but there are also (modern) Romanians present, though they do not have their own monastery.
When he returned home, fitted out with a red cape and gold trim on his weapons, reportedly, "Wherever he went, women paid heed to nothing but gazing at Bolli and his grandeur" [Peter Frankopan, , Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 2012, p.28], by which he became known as "Bolli the Elegant."It is noteworthy that while the legend and the romance of the Vikings is still a part of popular culture (I was entranced by , which I saw at in 1962), and most people retain an image of Viking barbarians fighting, looting, slaughtering, drinking, and raping (this is romance?), such awareness promply shuts down when the Norsemen convert to Christianity.
Fourth Empire, Late "Romania/Byzantium," 1059 AD-1453 AD
The last Emperors of the Dynasty, all by marriage, squandered the strength of the State, debased the coinage, and neglected the thematic forces that had been the military foundation of Romania for four hundred years -- in part by now ignoring, as Basil II had not, the alienation of the land of thematic soldiers to large landowners who did not have the same military obligations.
Also, numerous rune stones have been found in Sweden, often at churches for the now Christian Swedes, that stand as cenotaphs or commemorative monuments to men who left for Romania (, , etc., "Greece") and never came back.
For instance Tsar Kalojan of was called the "Roman Killer," , .
, at this point a vassal, will soon pass under Roman control.
Palmyra will briefly play a signifiant role in Roman history in the .
Bulgaria before Roman Conquest
The Romans gave up on the Elbe permanently.
That was the first book I ever saw that organized Roman Emperors into logical dynastic or event centered groups.
Now called the "Roman Oration," in Greek it is the , "To Rome" [cf.
Part of this process involved the marriage of Basil's sister Anna to Vladimir, and the provision by Russia of mercenaries for what now became the Emperor's "Varangian Guard." The Guard became the loyal shock troops and Life Guard of the Emperor, and are usually identifiable in historical accounts, even if not named as such, by their description as , ( in Greek), "axe bearers," from the single bladed axe (, ), with a handle up to six feet long, that they carried as their primary weapon (seen in the image at right from the history of John Scylitzes, c.1057).
Aelius is a Greek who now has become wholeheartedly Roman.
The alternation of war and trade that had characterized Roman relations with the Varangians, and which led to sharp defeats of Russia by John Tzimisces, took a greater turn toward friendship in Basil's day with the conversion of St.
This is a supremely secular product of Roman civilization.
For example, in addressing (in ten books) by the Roman historian Arrian of Nicomedia (an early member of the ), we get a long summary of , which are often obscure enough that every description helps.
Odaenath, the King of Palmyra (c.260-266), was a Roman ally.
Most symbolically, the breach between the Eastern and Western Churches in 1054 was the one that became permanent and henceforth separated the One Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church into the , usually called "Roman Catholic," and the , traditionally called "Greek Orthodox" -- along with the other autocephalous "Orthodox" Churches (Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Romanian, etc.).
This earned him Roman gratitude and titles, like .
Áthôs, Schism between Eastern and Western Churches, 1054; debased to 3/4 goldThe greatest dynasty of Middle Romania begins with the Empire still losing ground.
This grew gradually, as Roman weakness tempted Zenobia's ambition.
Greek influence ended up predominating, but the Bulgars continued jealous of their autonomy -- the precedent of an autocephalous Church set the pattern for other Orthodox Churches, as in , created under Roman auspices.
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