Sarin gas synthesis – Myles Power
1995: The Shinri Kyo cult uses Sarin nerve gas in the deadly Tokyo subway attack.
The Sarin Gas Attack in Japan and the Related Forensic Investigation
The synthesis of nano-size tungsten carbide powder has been investigated with a WO3 + Mg + C + carbonate system using alkali halides. The effects of different types of alkali halides on combustion temperature and tungsten carbide formation were discussed. Sodium fluoride had a notable effect on the particle size of the product and the degree of transformation from the initial mixture. A small amount of ammonium carbonate activated the carburization of tungsten carbide by the gas phase carbon transportation. X-ray diffraction data and particle analysis showed that the final product synthesized from a WO3–Mg–C–(NH4)2CO3–NaF system contains pure-phase tungsten carbide with a particle size of 50–100 nm.
The Tokyo attack is said to have used cans with water-sarin mixin which (nitreous?) acid was poured to heat the mix and make the sarinevaporate faster.
Tokyo Subway Sarin Gas Attack Essay Examples - …
In investigating the suspicions as to how the Sarin was manufactured, our laboratory at the NRIPS and the FSL of the Tokyo MPD performed forensic investigations on hundreds of evidence samples taken from the crime scene of the suspected Sarin manufacturing location. When the police investigated the documents seized in the cult office, they discovered the synthetic route to the mass manufacture of Sarin. The process involved 5 steps. In the first step, phosphorus trichloride was reacted with methanol to produce trimethylphosphite. In the second step, trimethylphosphite was converted to imethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) through a rearrangement caused by the application of heat. In the third step, DMMP was reacted with phosphorus pentachloride by applying heat, to produce methylphosphonyl dichloride. In the fourth step, methylphosphonyl dichloride was reacted with sodium fluoride to produce methylphosphonyl difluoride. In the final step, methylphosphonyl difluoride and methylphosphonyl dichloride were mixed with isopropyl alcohol to produce Sarin. Under the restricted conditions used by the cult members, a forensic investigation was carried out. From the wiped samples taken from the first-step equipment, trimethylphosphate, n-hexane and DEA were detected. From the second-step equipment, trimethylphosphate,DMMP, iodine and DEA were detected. From the third-step equipment, MPA, DEA, phosphorus oxychloride and sodium chloride were detected. From the fourth-step equipment, MPA, DEA, sodium chloride and sodium fluoride were detected. From the final-step equipment, IMPA, MPA, DEA, DMMP and sodium chloride were detected. From the chemical analysis of evidence samples taken from the manufacturing plant, only stable substances corresponding to the synthetic routes have been identified, but these serve to verify the synthesis of Sarin in the Aum plant facility.
Compared to the ChE activities in the Matsumoto Sarin incident, the degree of the decrease in activity was not significant, and there were some victims in whom blood activity levels were not decreased at all. Some victims were admitted to the hospital alive, but despite the fact that extensive medical procedures were performed, including the administration of the antidote PAM, they died from brain damage at an early stage. The rather high levels of ChE activities might have been due to the early discovery of patients, which then led to rapid medical treatment, and the blood ChE activity may have been restored by the reactivation mechanism. In the Tokyo subway Sarin gas attack, Sarin-containing plastic bags were used for the indiscriminate murder of defenceless people. The perpetrators boarded the subway trains with plastic bags containing Sarin, and released the gas by prodding the bags open with the metal tips of umbrellas.
Need writing essay about tokyo subway sarin gas attack
Sarin was discovered in 1938 in in by two German scientists attempting to create stronger pesticides; it is the most toxic of the four made by Germany. The compound, which followed the discovery of the , was named in honor of its discoverers: , Ambros, Rüdiger and Van der LINde.
Nerve gases can be analysed by GC/MS. Retention indices are useful indicators in identifying chemical warfare agents. Wiped samples and soils are extracted with both dichloromethane and water at neutral pH. Blood samples are deproteinised with perchloric acid, and the resulting supernatants are adjusted to neutrality, and extracted with dichloromethane. Nerve gases, synthetic intermediates and by-products are extracted into the organic solvent fraction, and after concentration under mild conditions, the residue is analysed by GC/MS using an apolar capillary column DB-5, and a multi-step temperature programme starting at 45°C. The hydrolysis products of nerve gases are extracted into the aqueous fraction, and after derivatisation, are analysed by GC/MS.
How does VX compare to sarin gas or mustard gas
A Brief History of Chemical War - Chemical Heritage …
More than 5000 passengers on Tokyo subway trains were injured by the nerve gas, sarin and its by-products
Gas - definition of gas by The Free Dictionary
Sarin - Wikipedia
Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis to Application: A Review - MDPI
Soman - Wikipedia
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For the previous ten years, the cult had started to construct facilities in a rural area of Yamanashi refecture near Mt. Fuji. In July 1994, just after the Matsumoto Sarin incident, inhabitants in the vicinity of a cult facility reported foul smells.A criminal investigation team from the Matsumoto Sarin incident analysed the chemical process for the synthesis of Sarin, and found that dummy companies operating on behalf of the cult had purchased large quantities of chemical raw materials. In addition, a Sarin hydrolysis product was detected and removed for forensic investigation from the soils taken near the site of the foul smell. The criminal investigators then began to strongly suspect the cult. Police secretly searched cult facilities, but before the search took place, the cult carried out the Tokyo subway Sarin gas attack. Two days after the Sarin incident, a simultaneous raid of Aum facilities was launched by 2500 police in connection with the imprisonment of a notary public manager who had died while being detained.
PDF Downloads : Oriental Journal of Chemistry
It was used by the terrorist group, , in a 1995 attack in the Tokyo subway, and in earlier, smaller attacks in 1994, not immediately recognized at the time. While the 1994 attack caused deaths and used a spray tank, the sarin was of low purity. Eight people died in the subway attack, but the death toll would have been far worse had it been even more slightly more efficiently dispersed. Aum operatives simply punctured plastic bags of the liquid chemical and relied on evaporation.
Chemical and Biological Weapons: Use in Warfare, …
I reviewed my files, and this is what I cameup with:The "auxillery chlorination" performed in Step3 of the DMHP Process for Sarin may be performedusing a variety of chlorinating agents:Cl2 + PCl3, PCl5, phosgene, or thionyl chloride.
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