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ing Hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990, 1995, ..

Schmidt (1995: 20) What affects noticing

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Language Learning and Teaching: Krashen's Input Hypothesis

...uch, and speech unites-- becomes the locus of learning. Such structured activities make use of "enhanced input," language thatshas both clear visual referents and whose forms get noticed by students (=-=Schmidt, 1995-=-). Languagesteachers further enhance their aural input through salience-building intonation, prosody, and visualsaccompaniments of all kinds (gesture, object, facial expression). Such complexes of ins...

which was later named the "noticing hypothesis" (Schmidt, ..

...ecoming intake. For example, the learner needs to be aware of the structural features of the input which is to be acquired; as according to Richard Schmidt, without noticing there can be no learning (=-=Schmidt 1995-=-a)1. A distinction between focus on forms adopted in traditional methodologies when forms are taught in isolation as grammatical paradigms, and focus on form, attention to linguistic form within a mea...

Testing instruments and procedure

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Interaction is the term used to refer to the interpersonal activity that takes place both face-to-face and electronically between people or between people and computer, as well as the intrapersonal activity that occurs within our minds (Chapelle, 2001). Interaction in the foreign language has been found to contribute to language acquisition. Interaction helps generate comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985), encourages negotiation of meaning (Pica, 1994), facilitates noticing (Schmidt, 1990), produces negative feedback (Schmidt ibid), and encourages output (Swain, 1985). Swain’s Output Hypothesis (1985) posits that for successful second language acquisition to occur comprehensible input alone is insufficient but learners must also be given opportunities to try out new language and produce comprehensible output during interaction, which, in turn enables them to develop competence in the target language.

For comprehensible output to be produced, however, learners have to be pushed in their language production. Pica (1994) claimed that negotiation of meaning helps learners make input comprehensible and helps them modify their own output, and, in turn, provides opportunities for them to acquire new language. Similar claims for the benefits of negotiation have been made by Long (1996) in his Interaction Hypothesis. According to Long, negotiation of meaning during interaction contributes significantly to second language comprehension and the negative feedback received through negotiation facilitates second language development, particularly for vocabulary, morphology, and syntax. Negotiation also provides opportunities for learners to focus their attention on linguistic form and to notice aspects of the target language. Noticing has been considered important because when input is noticed, it can become intake, i.e. input that the learner has comprehended semantically and syntactically, which facilitates acquisition (Schmidt 1990). In addition, noticing pushes learners into a more syntactic processing mode that will help them to internalise new forms and improve the accuracy of their existing grammatical knowledge.

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The Google Memo: What Does the Research Say About …

...ess on the part of successful learners, but it is not refuted by research that fails to find awareness accompanying learning. When this occurs, supporters of noticing can argue (e.g., Robinson, 1995; =-=Schmidt, 1990-=-) that the probes were not sensitive enough to detect the awareness, or that learners were aware at the moment the learning occurred but immediately forgot. One might ask how these possibilities could...

...sue extends to complexities of consciousness and memory, but it also seems clear that task demands that can be manipulated through instruction can increase the likelihood of noticing (Robinson, 1995; =-=Schmidt, 1990-=-). In other words, development of principles for CALL design methods require effective "input enhancement" (Sharwood Smith, 1991). Even though there may be factors internal to the learner that influen...

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Noticing in second language acquisition – sciencebin

...ing, sequenced according to the criteria Isdescribe, and others like them, leads to progressively greater attention to, “noticing”, andselaborative processing and retention of input (Robinson, 1995b; =-=Schmidt, 1995-=-, 2001);sprogressively more analysis of the input and output occurring during task works(Doughty, 2001; Muranoi, 2000; Pica, 1987; Swain, 1985, 1995), and also progressivelysgreater amounts of interac...

Noticing in second language acquisition

An additional component is the learner's ability to attend to and notice the particular features in the input (Schmidt, 1990, 1995; Schmidt & Frota, 1986; =-=Tomlin & Villa, 1994-=-).1 All of these approaches to input, interaction, and output place different amounts of emphasis on the role of input and attention to input in L2 morphosyntactic, lexical, and phonological developme...

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