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the second stage of photosynthesis that ..

The second stage of photosynthesis is the Calvin Cycle

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makes its way to the second stage of photosynthesis

The derision was loud from Wrangham’s colleagues…until evidence of was found at in South Africa by using new tools and techniques. The chortling is subsiding somewhat and scientists are now looking for the faint evidence, and long-disputed evidence of 1.5-1.7 mya controlled fires is being reconsidered, although his hypothesis is still widely considered as being only "mildly compelling" at best. New tools may push back the control of fire to a time that matches Wrangham’s audacious hypothesis. Wrangham cited the Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis as partially supporting the Cooking Hypothesis, but , the energy to power the human brain may not have solely derived from cooked food’s energy benefits. Wrangham has cited numerous lines of evidence, one of which is a that has to find honeybee hives and smoke them out; the humans get the honey and the honeyguide gets the larvae and wax. According to recent molecular evidence, the evolutionary split of the honeyguide from its ancestors happened up to three mya, which supports the early-control-of-fire hypothesis. There is great controversy regarding these subjects, from recent findings that to scientists making arguments that to the social impacts of campfires. This section of this essay will probably be one of the first to be revised in future versions, as new evidence is adduced and new hypotheses are proposed.

Calvin cycle is the part of photosynthesis, which occurs in two stages

The , like the prior , was more than one event and had more than one cause. The is what most people think about when mass extinctions are mentioned (as it was Hollywood-spectacular and ended one fascinating line of animals and paved the way for mammals to dominate), and it led to the existence of humans, but the Permian extinction was the Big One. Before the began lifting in the 1970s and 1980s, specialists generally thought that the Permian extinction only impacted the oceans and left terrestrial ecosystems unaffected. The picture has radically changed since the 1980s, and the terrestrial extinctions are now acknowledged as similarly catastrophic. The Permian extinction is Earth’s only mass extinction of insects, and although plants are not normally vulnerable to mass extinctions, land plants also barely survived the Permian extinction. But the extinction came in phases, and each may have had different causes. There is great ongoing controversy and research regarding the issues.

Glycolysis occurs during the second stage of ..

On land, the devastation was similar. Again, insects , and several orders of insects vanished from the fossil record after the Permian; those of Paleozoic times also vanished forever. Permian forests gave way to deciduous forests in the wake of global warming, and early gymnosperms and seed ferns were largely replaced as made a comeback in the early Triassic. The lycophyte radiation in the wake of the Permian extinction is typical of what are called , which are the first organisms to colonize disturbed environments. Reptiles and amphibians lost nearly two-thirds of their families, which translates to more than 90% of all species. All large herbivores and predators went extinct, along with gliding reptiles. In total, the Permian extinctions wiped out about 90-96% of all species, more than 80% of all genera, and nearly 60% of all families. Nothing else in the history of complex life comes close and puts the Permian extinction in a category all its own.

, a great clade of herbivorous dinosaurs, appeared , but were initially marginal dinosaurs and did not begin becoming abundant until the late Jurassic. If dinosaurs all have the same common ancestor, ornithischian dinosaurs quickly diverged, with their different hips, and so far, there is no good evidence that ornithischians breathed with the air sac system, and they became the dominant herbivores in the relatively high-oxygen Cretaceous. The ornithischian advantage was a superior eating system. Ornithischians were the only dinosaurs that chewed their food. Chewing squeezes more calories from plant matter and may be why ornithischians surpassed sauropods in the Cretaceous. Sauropods did not chew their food but had rock-filled , as birds and reptiles do today. in the late Triassic. Only rare ornithischians had gizzards. Sauropods also had the smallest proportional brains of any dinosaur. The most encephalized dinosaurs were , some of which were featured as clever killers in . Theropods were the most encephalized dinosaurs, which is an early example of predators having larger brains in order to outsmart their prey. were in second place only to theropods in encephalization and were among the most successful Cretaceous herbivores. A fascinating aspect of some ornithopods was their seeming ability to communicate by bugling with a . This kind of evidence strongly supports the idea of herd behavior in herbivorous dinosaurs. There is also evidence of a , which has been keenly contested (, ) in recent years.

What is the second stage of photosynthesis

The Carboniferous also marked the rise of reptiles, which between 320 and 310 mya. The very term has become rather informal with the rise of , as birds and mammals descended from “reptiles” but are not called that. The term refers to groupings such as reptiles, in which part of the clade is not classified in the named group; clades (beginning with the last common ancestor and including all descendants) are tidier and scientists often prefer them. Although the issue, as usual, is controversial today, it seems that and reptilian ancestors may have descended from different groups of tetrapods, and some seemingly added to the controversy. But the idea that reptiles are is still prominent. Most importantly, reptiles were the first , a clade that includes birds and mammals, which do not need to lay their eggs in water and allowed reptiles to . Reptiles then colonized niches previously unavailable to amphibians. The first reptiles were small and ate insects, and laying eggs in trees may have been a solution to arboreal life. Seed plants and amniotes could reproduce on dry land, and their success greatly expanded terrestrial ecosystems.

Ornithischians started slowly and began to become common in the late Jurassic, just when the greatest biological innovation in the past 300 million years began: the appearance of , which first bloomed about 160 mya. Until that time, plant survival strategies included how to avoid being eaten by animals, whether it was bark, height, poisonous foliage, etc. Flowering plants adopted a different strategy by laying out a banquet for animals. The primary benefit for plants was , as well as attracting animals that did not seek to eat the plants and even ended up protecting them. The advantage for animals was an easily acquired and tasty meal. It was the greatest direct symbiosis between plants and animals ever, other than plants providing the oxygen that animals breathe, which is inadvertent. The two primary aspirations that seed plants achieve for successful reproduction are becoming fertilized via pollination and placing seeds where they can become viable offspring (and feces fertilizer could only help). Flowering plants, also called angiosperms, did not invent animal assistance from whole cloth. Some Jurassic insects have been found in association with (conifer) cones, and were probably doing the work that the wind previously performed. Like the , attracting animals to plants, to eat the pollen and nectar, was like a reproductive enzyme: animals carried the key to the lock to initiate reproduction. Other animals ate the fruit and thereby spread the seeds. That relationship did not become significant until the mid-Cretaceous. Angiosperms mature faster and produce more seeds than gymnosperms do. By the Cretaceous’s end, angiosperms dominated tropical biomes where ferns and cycads used to thrive, and they pushed conifers to the high latitudes, just as they have today. That tropical dominance is probably related to the insect population, which prefers warm climates. Angiosperms became Earth’s dominant plants after the and comprise more than 90% of plant species today.

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  • The second stage of photosynthesis …

    Next we leave the thylakoids and head out into the stroma where the second stage of photosynthesis takes place.

  • The Calvin Cycle is the second stage of photosynthesis

    Second stage of Photosynthesis

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    The first stage of photosynthesis occurs when the energy from light is directly utilized to produce energy carrier ..

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two molecules used in the second stage of photosynthesis.

Artists have been depicting Carboniferous swamps for more than a century, and the . That represents a key Carboniferous issue and perhaps why the period ended. That , and others like it, appeared in the fossil record about 300 mya, when oxygen levels were Earth’s highest ever, at somewhere between 25% and 35%. The almost universally accepted reason for that high oxygen level is that for the entire Carboniferous Period removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in vast amounts. Today, the estimate is that carbon dioxide fell from about 1,500 PPM at the beginning of the Carboniferous to 350 PPM by the end, which is lower than today’s value. That tandem effect of sequestering carbon and freeing oxygen not only may have led to huge arthropods and amphibians, but also intensified . The idea that high oxygen levels led to those giants was first proposed more than a century ago and dismissed, but has recently come back into favor. Flying insects have the highest metabolisms of all animals, but they do not have diaphragmatic lungs as mammals have, or air sac lungs as birds have, and although they may have some way of actively breathing by contracting their tracheas, it is not the bellows action of vertebrate lungs. The for early insect gigantism is that high oxygen, as well as a denser atmosphere (the nitrogen mass would not have fallen, so increased oxygen would have added to the atmosphere’s mass), would have enabled such leviathans to fly, and the other is that flying insects got a head start in the arms race and could grow large until predators that could catch them evolved. The late Permian had an even larger dragonfly, when oxygen levels had crashed back down. The evolution of flight is another area of great controversy, and insects accomplished it long before vertebrates did. The general idea is that flight structures evolved from those used for other purposes. For insects, wings appear to have evolved from aquatic “oars,” and gills became lungs. Reptiles did not develop flight until the Triassic, and .

is used in the second stage of photosynthesis

Sauropods were high grazers that ate tree ferns, cycads, and conifers as their staple. The dramatic radiation of ornithischians in the late Cretaceous coincided with the spread of angiosperms, and their chewing ability continually improved. Insects also dramatically diversified, as did birds and mammals, in an epochal instance of coevolution between plants and animals. Hive insects (bees, wasps, termites, and ants) began their rise when flowering plants did.

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